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Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) introduces DNA cleavage in the Ig gene locus to initiate somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR) in B cells. The DNA deamination model assumes that AID deaminates cytidine (C) on DNA and generates uridine (U), resulting in DNA cleavage after removal of U by uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG).(More)
The effect of neonatal masseteric nerve transection on primary proprioceptors was examined in the mesencephalic trigeminal tract nucleus (Mes5) of the rat. At 72 h to 21 days after the injury, the number of Mes5 neurons decreased on the side ipsilateral to the transection. The means+/-SD of percentage proportion of ipsilateral/contralateral neurons at 72 h(More)
Immunohistochemistry for vanilloid receptor subtype 1 (VR1), vanilloid receptor 1-like receptor (VRL-1) and P2X3 receptor was performed in the rat temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Blood vessels in the articular disk and capsule, the synovial membrane and the fibrous tissue around the condylar process were innervated by VR1- or P2X3 receptor-immunoreactive(More)
Immunohistochemistry for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was performed on the rat trigeminal ganglion (TG). The immunoreactivity (IR) was detected in 46% of TG neurons. These neurons were mostly small- or medium-sized (range, 149.7-1246.3 microm2; mean +/- SD = 373.4 +/- 151.6 microm2). A double immunofluorescence method also revealed that 54% of(More)
The systemic administration of capsaicin is known to cause a massive loss of sensory primary neurons in newborn rats. Here we examined the trigeminal ganglion neurons immunohistochemically for the possible induction of activated forms of caspases-9 and -3 following a subcutaneous injection of capsaicin in newborn rats. The DNA fragmentation signal was(More)
The co-expression of calretinin with parvalbumin and calbindin D-28k was examined in the rat cranial and spinal sensory ganglia by triple immunofluorescence method. In the trigeminal and nodose ganglia, 9% and 5% of calretinin-immunoreactive neurons, respectively, also contained both parvalbumin- and calbindin D-28k immunoreactivity. These neurons had large(More)
Capsaicin induces apoptosis in some types of neurons, but the exact molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, capsaicin was systemically administrated in newborn rats and the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons were examined for caspase-immunoreactivity. Capsaicin-induced neuronal apoptosis was revealed by TUNEL. TUNEL-positive neurons rapidly(More)
Immunohistochemistry for osteocalcin (OC) was performed on the rat vagal and glossopharyngeal sensory ganglia. OC-immunoreactive (IR) neurons were detected in the jugular (10%), petrosal (11%) and nodose ganglia (6%). The cell size analysis demonstrated that OC-IR neurons were predominantly small to medium-sized in the jugular ganglion(More)
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