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Root hairs provide a model system for the study of cell polarity. We examined the possibility that one or more members of the distinct plant subfamily of RHO monomeric GTPases, termed Rop, may function as molecular switches regulating root hair growth. Specific Rops are known to control polar growth in pollen tubes. Overexpressing Rop2 (Rop2 OX) resulted in(More)
Polar cell expansion in differentiating tissues is critical for the development and morphogenesis of plant organs and is modulated by hormonal and developmental signals, yet little is known about signaling in this fundamental process in plants. In contrast to tip-growing cells, such as pollen tubes and root hairs, cells in developing tissues are thought to(More)
Seedling apical hook development involves a complex interplay of hormones and light in the regulation of differential cell growth. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms that integrate these diverse signals to control bending of the embryonic stem are poorly understood. The Arabidopsis ethylene-regulated HOOKLESS1 (HLS1) gene is essential for apical(More)
High demand for computation resources severely hinders deployment of large-scale Deep Neural Networks (DNN) in resource constrained devices. In this work, we propose a Structured Sparsity Learning (SSL) method to regularize the structures (i.e., filters, channels, filter shapes, and layer depth) of DNNs. SSL can: (1) learn a compact structure from a bigger(More)
The Brain-State-in-a-Box (BSB) model is an auto-associative neural network that has been widely used in optical character recognition and image processing. Traditionally, the BSB model was realized at software level and carried out on high-performance computing clusters. To improve computation efficiency and reduce resources requirement, we propose a(More)
The gaseous plant hormone ethylene regulates a multitude of growth and developmental processes. How the numerous growth control pathways are coordinated by the ethylene transcriptional response remains elusive. We characterized the dynamic ethylene transcriptional response by identifying targets of the master regulator of the ethylene signaling pathway,(More)
Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important plant hormone that modulates seed germination and plant growth and stress responses, but its signaling remains poorly understood. We investigated the role of ROP10, a member of the Arabidopsis Rop subfamily of Rho GTPases, in ABA signaling. A null rop10 mutant exhibits enhanced responses to ABA in seed germination, root(More)
In recent years, non-volatile memory (NVM) technologies have emerged as candidates for future universal memory. NVMs generally have advantages such as low leakage power, high density, and fast read spead. At the same time, NVMs also have disadvantages. For example, NVMs often have asymetric read and write speed and energy cost, which poses new challenges(More)
Using the spin-transfer torque random access memory (STT-RAM) technology as lower level on-chip caches has been proposed to minimize leakage power consumption and enhance cache capacity at the scaled technologies. However, programming STT-RAM is a stochastic process due to the random thermal fluctuations. Conventional worst-case (corner) design with a fixed(More)
We proposed a novel self-reference sensing scheme for Spin-Transfer Torque Random Access Memory (STT-RAM) to overcome the large bit-to-bit variation of Magnetic Tunneling Junction (MTJ) resistance. Different from all the existing schemes, our solution is nondestructive: The stored value in the STT-RAM cell does NOT need to be overwritten by a reference(More)