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It has been demonstrated that inhaled fine (d < 2.5 microm) and ultrafine (d < 100 nm) particles produce more severe toxicity than coarse particles. Some recent data support the concept that the central nervous system (CNS) may be a target for the inhaled fine particulates. This work describes initial observation of the transport of intranasally instilled(More)
LIM homeodomain transcription factors play crucial roles in determining diverse aspects of neuronal development both in vertebrates and invertebrates. In the present study, we studied the expression pattern of Islet-1 (Isl-1), a member of the LIM homeodomain protein family, in the rat striatum during development. The developmental expression of Isl-1 in the(More)
Platinum (Pt) nanocrystals have demonstrated to be an effective catalyst in many heterogeneous catalytic processes. However, pioneer facets with highest activity have been reported differently for various reaction systems. Although Pt has been the most important counter electrode material for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), suitable atomic arrangement on(More)
BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to investigate whether the steroid hormone(s) secreted from cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) is a prerequisite for bovine oocyte maturation and cumulus expansion using aminoglutethimide (AGT), a P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage inhibitor. METHODS In experiment 1, COCs were cultured in maturation medium with(More)
Modifications of local structure at atomic level could precisely and effectively tune the capacity of materials, enabling enhancement in the catalytic activity. Here we modulate the local atomic structure of a classical but inert transition metal oxide, tungsten trioxide, to be an efficient electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution in acidic water, which has(More)
The efficient electrocatalysts for many heterogeneous catalytic processes in energy conversion and storage systems must possess necessary surface active sites. Here we identify, from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations, that controlling charge density redistribution via the atomic-scale incorporation of heteroatoms is(More)
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