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Photosynthesis is used by plants, algae and bacteria to convert solar energy into stable chemical energy. The initial stages of this process--where light is absorbed and energy and electrons are transferred--are mediated by reaction centres composed of chlorophyll and carotenoid complexes. It has been previously shown that single small molecules can be used(More)
An array of 50 ␮m ϫ 50 ␮m polymer waveguides with 45° total internal reflection ͑TIR͒ wideband coupling mirrors were fabricated by soft molding to achieve fully embedded boardlevel optoelectronic interconnects. The 45° TIR coupling mirrors were formed at the ends of the waveguides to provide surface normal light coupling between waveguides and(More)
—This paper presents the latest progress toward fully embedded board-level optical interconnects in the aspect of waveguide fabrication and device integration. A one-step pattern transfer method is used to form a large cross-section multimode waveguide array with 45 micromirrors by silicon hard molding method. Optimized by a novel spin-coating surface(More)