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Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and methyl salicylate (MeSA) are important signaling molecules that induce plant defense against insect herbivores and microbial pathogens. We tested the hypothesis that allelopathy is an inducible defense mechanism, and that the JA and SA signaling pathways may activate allelochemicals release. Exogenous application of MeJA and MeSA(More)
Photosynthesis is used by plants, algae and bacteria to convert solar energy into stable chemical energy. The initial stages of this process--where light is absorbed and energy and electrons are transferred--are mediated by reaction centres composed of chlorophyll and carotenoid complexes. It has been previously shown that single small molecules can be used(More)
Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) of wheat greatly reduces the quality and economic value of grain, and PHS resistance is one of the most important traits in wheat breeding. Red-grained wheat varieties are generally more resistant to PHS than white-grained ones; however, some are still susceptible. The red pigment of red-grained wheat is synthesized through the(More)
Since their invention in 1987 by Tang et al, [ 1 ] small-molecule organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have been the subject of intense scientifi c and technological investigation for applications ranging from lighting [ 2 ] and displays [ 3 ] to sensors. [ 4 ] Although monocolor OLEDs are suffi cient for some applications, color integration on a single(More)
This paper presents the latest progress toward fully embedded board-level optical interconnects in the aspect of waveguide fabrication and device integration. A one-step pattern transfer method is used to form a large cross-section multimode waveguide array with 45 micromirrors by silicon hard molding method. Optimized by a novel spin-coating surface(More)