Hagop Souren Akiskal

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CONTEXT There is growing recognition that bipolar disorder (BPD) has a spectrum of expression that is substantially more common than the 1% BP-I prevalence traditionally found in population surveys. OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence, correlates, and treatment patterns of bipolar spectrum disorder in the US population. DESIGN Direct interviews. (More)
BACKGROUND Our aim was to validate the Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) in a clinical population. METHODS The study was conducted in two Memphis mood clinics involving 398 affectively ill patients with young to middle index age (42 years+/-13 S.D.), who were 95% white, 62% female, and 51%(More)
Until recently it was believed that no more than 1% of the general population has bipolar disorder. Emerging transatlantic data are beginning to provide converging evidence for a higher prevalence of up to at least 5%. Manic states, even those with mood-incongruent features, as well as mixed (dysphoric) mania, are now formally included in both ICD-10 and(More)
BACKGROUND To our knowledge, this is the first prospective natural history study of weekly symptomatic status of patients with bipolar I disorder (BP-I) during long-term follow-up. METHODS Analyses are based on ongoing prospective follow-up of 146 patients with Research Diagnostic Criteria BP-I, who entered the National Institute of Mental Health(More)
BACKGROUND Despite emerging international consensus on the high prevalence of the bipolar spectrum in both clinical and community samples, many skeptics contend that narrowly defined bipolar disorder with a lifetime rate of about 1% represents a more accurate estimate of prevalence. This may in part be due to the fact that higher figures proposed for the(More)
OBJECTIVE Research on the workplace costs of mood disorders has focused largely on major depressive episodes. Bipolar disorder has been overlooked both because of the failure to distinguish between major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder and by the failure to evaluate the workplace costs of mania/hypomania. METHOD The National Comorbidity Survey(More)
BACKGROUND The nosologic status of agitated depression is unresolved. Are they unipolar (UP) or bipolar (BP)? Are they mixed states? Even more controversial is the notion that antidepressants might play some role in the suicidality of such patients (Akiskal and Mallya, 1987) [Akiskal, H.S., Mallya, G., 1987. Criteria for the "soft" bipolar spectrum:(More)
BACKGROUND Investigations of unipolar major depressive disorder (MDD) have focused primarily on major depressive episode remission/recovery and relapse/recurrence. This is the first prospective, naturalistic, long-term study of the weekly symptomatic course of MDD. METHODS The weekly depressive symptoms of 431 patients with MDD seeking treatment at 5(More)
The authors identified 46 cyclothymic probands from a random pool of 500 psychiatric outpatients and prospectively followed them over a 2-3 year period. They used 50 bipolar patients with a definite history of mania and 50 patients with personality disorders as control groups. Although 66% of the cyclothymic outpatients had previously received the diagnosis(More)
Based on the author's work and that of collaborators, as well as other contemporaneous research, this article reaffirms the existence of a broad bipolar spectrum between the extremes of psychotic manic-depressive illness and strictly defined unipolar depression. The alternation of mania and melancholia beginning in the juvenile years is one of the most(More)