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Renal morphogenesis requires a balance between positive and negative signals, which are provided in part by the receptor tyrosine kinase Ret and the putative tumor suppressor Sprouty1, respectively. Tyrosine 1062 of Ret is a binding site for several adaptor and effector proteins, such as Grb2/Sos/Ras, which activate the ERK pathway. Mice lacking Ret(More)
In the event of weak autoradiographic labelling, the proportion of truly labelled cells or structures can be calculated from the frequency distributions of grains per area or cell structure fori=0, 1,...,n grains using the results obtained for an experimental group after the application of a radioactively labelled substance and those obtained for a control(More)
We have successfully grown high-quality AlN piezoelectric single crystal using the sublimation technique. Transparent crack-free boules of approximately 15 mm in diameter and 25 mm in length along the [0001] direction were obtained, with coloring from amber to dark brown depending on growth temperature. Full sets of material parameters of grown AlN and(More)
Generating aerosol droplets via the atomization of thin aqueous films with high frequency surface acoustic waves (SAWs) offers several advantages over existing nebulization methods, particularly for pulmonary drug delivery, offering droplet sizes in the 1-5-μm range ideal for effective pulmonary therapy. Nevertheless, the physics underlying SAW atomization(More)
In this paper, we detect and characterize the carbon contamination layers that are formed during the illumination of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) multilayer mirrors. The EUV induced carbon layers were characterized ex situ using spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and laser generated surface acoustic waves (LG-SAW). We show that both LG-SAW and SE are very(More)
The ground-based radiometer GROMOS, stationed in Bern (47.95 • N, 7.44 • E), Switzerland, has a unique data set: it obtains ozone profiles from November 1994 to present with a time resolution of 30 min and equivalent quality during night-and daytime. Here, we derive a monthly cli-matology of the daily ozone cycle from 17 years of GRO-MOS observation. We(More)
The high-frequency pressure induced by a surface acoustic wave in the fluid filling a microchannel is computed by solving the full scattering problem. The microchannel is fabricated inside a container attached to the top of a piezoelectric substrate where the surface wave propagates. The finite element method is used. The pressure found in this way is(More)
In this paper a new tool to assess viscoelastic and dielectric properties of human fluids is presented. Shear horizontal polarized surface acoustic waves (SH-SAW) are used to detect the viscoelastic properties of coagulating blood and blood plasma samples. One-port SAW resonators, with fundamental modes of 85, 170 und 340 MHz were developed. Additionally,(More)
A new Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) experiment “G4 specified stratospheric aerosols” (short name: G4SSA) is proposed to investigate the impact of stratospheric aerosol geoengineering on atmosphere, chemistry, dynamics, climate, and the environment. In contrast to the earlier G4 GeoMIP experiment, which requires an emission of sulfur(More)