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Silver ions inhibited phosphate uptake and exchange in Escherichia coli and caused efflux of accumulated phosphate as well as of mannitol, succinate, glutamine, and proline. The effects of Ag+ were reversed by thiols and, to a lesser extent, by bromide. In the presence of N-ethylmaleimide and several uncouplers, Ag+ failed to cause phosphate efflux, but(More)
Recent investigations have demonstrated a complex interrelationship between autophagy and cell death. A common mechanism of cell death in liver injury is tumor necrosis factor (TNF) cytotoxicity. To better delineate the in vivo function of autophagy in cell death, we examined the role of autophagy in TNF-induced hepatic injury. Atg7Δhep mice with a(More)
The number of heart transplantations performed over the past 3 years has plateaued. However, the number of pediatric transplantations continues to slowly increase. Unlike adult heart transplantation, for which cardiomyopathy remains the most frequent indication, structural congenital heart disease is the primary indication in children. This report reviews(More)
Several highly attenuated spore-forming nontoxinogenic and nonencapsulated Bacillus anthracis vaccines differing in levels of expression of recombinant protective antigen (rPA) were constructed. Biochemical analyses (including electrospray mass spectroscopy and N terminus amino acid sequencing) as well as biological and immunological tests demonstrated that(More)
Mutants of Escherichia coli K-12 were constructed such that each possessed one single major system for phosphate transport. A comparison of these strains showed that one of the systems (PIT) was fully constitutive, required no binding protein, and operated in spheroplasts. It permitted the complete exchange of intracellular phosphate with extracellular(More)
The GlpT system for sn-glycerol-3-phosphate transport in Escherichia coli is shown to catalyze a rapid efflux of Pi from the internal phosphate pools in response to externally added Pi or glycerol-3-phosphate. A glpR mutation, which results in constitutive expression of the GlpT system, is responsible for this rapid Pi efflux and the arsenate sensitivity of(More)
The efficacy of passive immunization as a postexposure prophylactic measure for treatment of guinea pigs intranasally infected with Bacillus anthracis spores was evaluated. Antisera directed either against the lethal toxin components (PA or LF) or against a toxinogenic strain (Sterne) were used for this evaluation. All antisera exhibited high enzyme-linked(More)