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The transcription factor Pax6 plays a pivotal role in eye development, as eye morphogenesis is arrested at a primitive optic vesicle stage in homozygous Pax6 mutant mouse embryos. The arrested optic vesicle development has led to the assumption that cellular differentiation programs are unable to initiate. Contrary to this, we found that neurogenesis in(More)
Exposure to ethanol during early development triggers severe neuronal death by activating multiple stress pathways and causes neurological disorders, such as fetal alcohol effects or fetal alcohol syndrome. This study investigated the effect of ethanol on intracellular events that predispose developing neurons for apoptosis via calcium-mediated signaling.(More)
During embryogenesis, multiple developmental processes are integrated through their precise temporal regulation. Hes1 is a transcriptional repressor that regulates the timing of mammalian retinal neurogenesis. However, roles for Hes1 in early eye development have not been well defined. Here, we show that Hes1 is expressed in the forming lens, optic vesicle,(More)
Many diseases of the eye such as retinoblastoma, diabetic retinopathy, and retinopathy of prematurity are associated with blood-retinal barrier (BRB) dysfunction. Identifying the factors that contribute to BRB formation during human eye development and maintenance could provide insights into such diseases. Here we show that A-kinase anchor protein 12(More)
During development, anesthetics activate neuroapoptosis and produce damage in the central nervous system that leads to several types of neurological disorders. A single dose of ketamine (40 mg/kg) during synaptogenesis in a 7-day-old rat brain activated the apoptotic cascade and caused extensive neuronal cell death in the forebrain. In this study, we(More)