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Exposure to manganese via inhalation has long been known to elicit neurotoxicity in adults, but little is known about possible consequences of exposure via drinking water. In this study, we report results of a cross-sectional investigation of intellectual function in 142 10-year-old children in Araihazar, Bangladesh, who had been consuming tube-well water(More)
A comparison of field and laboratory measurements of arsenic in groundwater of Araihazar, Bangladesh, indicates that the most widely used field kit correctly determined the status of 88% of 799 wells relative to the local standard of 50 microg/L As. Additional tests showthatthe inconsistencies, mainly underestimates in the 50-100 microg/L As range, can be(More)
Chronic exposure to arsenic is occurring throughout South and East Asia due to groundwater contamination of well water. Variability in susceptibility to arsenic toxicity may be related to nutritional status. Arsenic is methylated to monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) via one-carbon metabolism, a biochemical pathway that is dependent(More)
BACKGROUND Most studies that have evaluated the association between the body-mass index (BMI) and the risks of death from any cause and from specific causes have been conducted in populations of European origin. METHODS We performed pooled analyses to evaluate the association between BMI and the risk of death among more than 1.1 million persons recruited(More)
BACKGROUND Diabetes affects an estimated 346 million persons globally, and total deaths from diabetes are projected to increase > 50% in the next decade. Understanding the role of environmental chemicals in the development or progression of diabetes is an emerging issue in environmental health. In 2011, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) organized a(More)
The contamination of groundwater by arsenic in Bangladesh is a major public health concern affecting 35-75 million people. Although it is evident that high levels (>300 microg/L) of arsenic exposure from drinking water are related to adverse health outcomes, health effects of arsenic exposure at low-to-moderate levels (10-300 microg/L) are not well(More)
BACKGROUND Radiation therapy (RT) to the pelvis has been associated with an increased risk of bladder carcinoma, as well as other malignancies. However, no controlled studies have previously explored the risk of second malignancies after RT for prostate carcinoma. METHODS A retrospective cohort study was conducted utilizing data from the Surveillance,(More)
Exposure to arsenic has long been known to have neurologic consequences in adults, but to date there are no well-controlled studies in children. We report results of a cross-sectional investigation of intellectual function in 201 children 10 years of age whose parents participate in our ongoing prospective cohort study examining health effects of As(More)
BACKGROUND Incidence rates for adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and gastric cardia have risen steeply over the last few decades. To determine risk factors for these tumors, we conducted a multicenter, population-based, case-control study. METHODS The study included 554 subjects newly diagnosed with esophageal or gastric cardia adenocarcinomas, 589(More)
CONTEXT Current epidemiological evidence suggests an association between obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and colorectal cancer risk. Adiponectin is a hormone secreted by the adipose tissue, and serum levels are inversely correlated with obesity and hyperinsulinemia. While there is evidence of an association between circulating adiponectin levels and colorectal(More)