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The cellular immune response to primary influenza virus infection is complex, involving multiple cell types and anatomical compartments, and is difficult to measure directly. Here we develop a two-compartment model that quantifies the interplay between viral replication and adaptive immunity. The fidelity of the model is demonstrated by accurately(More)
Quantifying the dynamics of intrahost HIV-1 sequence evolution is one means of uncovering information about the interaction between HIV-1 and the host immune system. In the chronic phase of infection, common dynamics of sequence divergence and diversity have been reported. We developed an HIV-1 sequence evolution model that simulated the effects of mutation(More)
MOTIVATION Insertional RNA editing renders gene prediction very difficult compared to organisms without such RNA editing. A case in point is the mitochondrial genome of Physarum polycephalum in which only about one-third of the number of genes that are to be expected given its length are annotated. Thus, gene prediction methods that explicitly take into(More)
MOTIVATION Illustrating how HIV-1 is transmitted and how it evolves in the following weeks is an important step for developing effective vaccination and prevention strategies. It is currently possible through DNA sequencing to account for the diverse array of viral strains within an infected individual. This provides an unprecedented opportunity to pinpoint(More)
OBJECTIVE Properly priming cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses is an important task in HIV-1 vaccination. However, the STEP trial showed no efficacy even though the vaccine elicited HIV-specific CTL responses. Our study is to investigate whether or not the STEP vaccine enhanced viral escape in infected volunteers. METHODS The signature of viral escape,(More)
The molecular clock hypothesis that genes or proteins evolve at a constant rate is a key tool to reveal phylogenetic relationships among species. Using the molecular clock, we can trace an infection back to transmission using HIV-1 sequences from a single time point. Whether or not a strict molecular clock applies to HIV-1’s early evolution in the presence(More)
BACKGROUND The acute phase of immunodeficiency virus infection plays a crucial role in determining steady-state virus load and subsequent progression of disease in both humans and nonhuman primates. The acute period is also the time when vaccine-mediated effects on host immunity are likely to exert their major effects on virus infection. Recently we(More)
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