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The World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Centres for Reference and Research on Influenza (WHO CCs) tested 13,312 viruses collected by WHO recognized National Influenza Centres between May 2014 and May 2015 to determine 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) data for neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) oseltamivir, zanamivir, peramivir and laninamivir.(More)
Unfavourable environmental conditions such as cold induce the transcription of a range of genes in plants in order to acclimate to these growth conditions. To better understand the cold acclimation of maize (Zea mays L.) it is important to identify components of the cold stress response. For this purpose, cold-induced genes were analysed using the(More)
Infection with influenza viruses, including seasonal, avian and pandemic viruses, remains a worldwide public health problem. Although influenza virus infection is both vaccine preventable and drug treatable, high rates of mutation and reassortment of viruses can result in reduced effectiveness of vaccines or drugs. Currently, two classes of drugs,(More)
Our previous studies reported that methanol extract of Sanguisorbae radix from Sanguisorba officinalis L. (Rosaceae) prevented neuronal cell damage induced by Abeta (25-35) in vitro. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of gallic acid isolated from Sanguisorbae radix on Abeta (25-35)-induced neurotoxicity using cultured rat cortical(More)
The neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs), oseltamivir and zanamivir, are essential for treatment and prevention of influenza A and B infections. Oseltamivir resistance among influenza A (H1N1) viruses rapidly emerged and spread globally during the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 influenza seasons. Approximately 20% and 90% of viruses tested for NAI susceptibility at CDC(More)
BACKGROUND Neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors (NAIs) are currently the only antivirals effective against influenza infections due to widespread resistance to M2 inhibitors. METHODS Influenza A and B viruses (n = 1079) collected worldwide between April 01, 2011, and September 30, 2011, were assessed for susceptibility to FDA-approved NAIs, oseltamivir and(More)
Neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) are vital in managing seasonal and pandemic influenza infections. NAI susceptibilities of virus isolates (n = 5540) collected during the 2008-2009 influenza season were assessed in the chemiluminescent neuraminidase inhibition (NI) assay. Box-and-whisker plot analyses of log-transformed IC(50)s were performed for each virus(More)
BACKGROUND Antiviral drugs are an important option for managing infections caused by influenza viruses. This study assessed the drug susceptibility of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) viruses collected globally between April 2009 and January 2010. METHODS Virus isolates were tested for adamantane susceptibility, using pyrosequencing to detect the S31N(More)
During May 2009-April 2010, we analyzed 692 samples of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus from patients in Mexico. We detected the H275Y substitution of the neuraminidase gene in a specimen from an infant with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 who was treated with oseltamivir. This virus was susceptible to zanamivir and resistant to adamantanes and oseltamivir.
Phylogenetic analyses of 169 influenza A(H5N1) virus genomes were conducted for samples collected through active surveillance and outbreak responses in Vietnam between September 2010 and September 2012. While clade 1.1 viruses persisted in southern regions, three genetically distinct subgroups of clade were found in northern and central Vietnam. The(More)