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In the mammalian plasma membrane, cholesterol can translocate rapidly between the exoplasmic and cytoplasmic leaves, so that its distribution between them should be given by the equality of its chemical potential in the leaves. Due to its favorable interaction with sphingomyelin, which is almost entirely in the outer leaf, one expects the great majority of(More)
Equilibrium equations and stability conditions are derived for a general class of multicomponent biological membranes. The analysis is based on a generalized Helfrich energy that accounts for geometry through the stretch and curvature, the composition, and the interaction between geometry and composition. The use of nonclassical differential operators and(More)
The stability of a total nutrient admixture (TNA) has been postulated to be less than 7 days in refrigerated storage. When a TNA destabilizes, lipid particles coalesce and enlarge. Liposomes larger than 6 microns can obstruct pulmonary capillaries. A TNA containing 1500 ml of 7% Vamin, 1000 ml of 50% dextrose and 500 ml of 10% Intralipid, including the(More)
We consider two mechanisms that can lead to an inhomogeneous distribution of components in a multicomponent lipid bilayer: macroscopic phase separation and the formation of modulated phases. A simple model that encompasses both mechanisms displays a phase diagram that also includes a structured fluid, a microemulsion. Identifying rafts with the(More)
The distribution of cholesterol between the two leaves of the plasma membrane in mammalian cells presents a conundrum; given cholesterol's known affinity for sphingomyelin, which resides predominantly in the exoplasmic leaf, why is it that experiment finds a majority of the cholesterol in the cytoplasmic leaf? This article reviews a recently proposed(More)
We investigate a model of an asymmetric bilayer consisting of sphigomyelin, phosphatidylcholine, and cholesterol in the outer leaflet, and phosphatidylethanolamine, (PE), phosphatidylserine, and cholesterol in the inner leaflet. Composition fluctuations are coupled to membrane fluctuations via the bending energy which depends upon the local spontaneous(More)
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