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The relationship between deuterium and oxygen-18 concentrations in natural meteoric waters from many parts of the world has been determined with a mass spectrometer. The isotopic enrichments, relative to ocean water, display a linear correlation over the entire range for waters which have not undergone excessive evaporation.
Atmospheric oxygen has been found to be enriched in oxygen-18 by 23.5 +/- 0.3 per mil relative to average ocean water (SMOW). Oxygen dissolved in seawater is further enriched in oxygen-18 by 0.85 per mil at 0 degrees C. The temperature dependence of the solubility enrichment is given by epsilon (per mil) = 0.85- 0.010 t ( degrees C). This result is in good(More)
A standard, based on the set of ocean water samples used by Epstein and Mayeda to obtain a reference standard for oxygen-18 data, but defined relative to the National Bureau of Standards isotopic reference water sample, is proposed for reporting both deuterium and oxygen-18 variations in natural waters relative to the same water. The range of absolute(More)
Atmospheric gases trapped in polar ice at the firn to ice transition layer are enriched in heavy isotopes (nitrogen-15 and oxygen-18) and in heavy gases (O(2)/N(2) and Ar/N(2) ratios) relative to the free atmosphere. The maximum enrichments observed follow patterns predicted for gravitational equilibrium at the base of the firn layer, as calculated from the(More)
The global budget of N(2)O shows a significant imbalance between the known rate of destruction in the stratosphere and the estimated rates of natural and anthropogenic production in soils and the ocean. Measurements of the (15)N/(14)N and (18)O/(16)O ratios in two major tropospheric sources of N(2)O, tropical rain forest soils and fertilized soils, show(More)
Abstract. Deuterium and oxygen-18 measurements show that the Red Sea and Salton Sea brines are the results of a single process, the leaching of sediments by surface water circulating downward to a geothermal reservoir. The Salton Sea brine is derived from local precipitation but the Red Sea brine originates 1000 kilometers south of its basin, on the shallow(More)
Freezing in ice-covered lakes causes dissolved gases to become supersaturated while at the same time removing gases trapped in the ablating ice cover. Analysis of N2, O2, and Ar in bubbles from Lake Hoare ice shows that, while O2 is approximately 2.4 times supersaturated in the water below the ice, only 11% of the O2 input to this lake is due to biological(More)
A new method measures the oxygen-isotopic composition of dissolved sulfate ions and barium sulfate. Sulfate ions in the oceans are enriched in oxygen-18 by 9.5 per mille relative to mean ocean water and show only minor variations, probably because the exchange rate with water is slow enough to prevent local equilibrium with surface waters. Sulfate ions in(More)
Air bubbles in polar ice cores indicate that about 300 years ago the atmospheric mixing ratio of methane began to increase rapidly. Today the mixing ratio is about 1.7 parts per million by volume, and, having doubled once in the past several hundred years, it will double again in the next 60 years if current rates continue. Carbon isotope ratios in methane(More)