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Bile acids as regulatory molecules
In the past, bile acids were considered to be just detergent molecules derived from cholesterol in the liver. They were known to be important for the solubilization of cholesterol in the gallbladderExpand
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Increased hepatic synthesis and dysregulation of cholesterol metabolism is associated with the severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with increased cardiovascular and liver-related mortality. NAFLD is characterized by both triglyceride and free cholesterol (FC) accumulationExpand
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Prostaglandin catabolizing enzymes.
The primary catabolic pathway of prostaglandins and related eicosanoids is initiated by the oxidation of 15(S)-hydroxyl group catalyzed by NAD+-dependent 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenaseExpand
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Inhibition of sustained smooth muscle contraction by PKA and PKG preferentially mediated by phosphorylation of RhoA.
The role of RhoA in myosin light-chain (MLC)(20) dephosphorylation and smooth muscle relaxation by PKA and PKG was examined in freshly dispersed and cultured smooth muscle cells expressing wild-typeExpand
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G(i-1)/G(i-2)-dependent signaling by single-transmembrane natriuretic peptide clearance receptor.
Single-transmembrane natriuretic peptide clearance receptor (NPR-C), which is devoid of a cytoplasmic guanylyl cyclase domain, interacts with pertussis toxin (PTx)-sensitive G proteins to activateExpand
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Conjugated bile acids activate the sphingosine‐1‐phosphate receptor 2 in primary rodent hepatocytes
Bile acids have been shown to be important regulatory molecules for cells in the liver and gastrointestinal tract. They can activate various cell signaling pathways including extracellular regulatedExpand
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Bile acids are nutrient signaling hormones
Bile salts play crucial roles in allowing the gastrointestinal system to digest, transport and metabolize nutrients. They function as nutrient signaling hormones by activating specific nuclearExpand
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Distinctive G protein-dependent signaling in smooth muscle by sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors S1P1 and S1P2.
  • H. Zhou, K. Murthy
  • Biology, Medicine
  • American journal of physiology. Cell physiology
  • 1 May 2004
We examined expression of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptors and sphingosine kinase (SPK) in gastric smooth muscle cells and characterized signaling pathways mediating S1P-induced 20-kDa myosinExpand
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Differential signalling by muscarinic receptors in smooth muscle: m2-mediated inactivation of myosin light chain kinase via Gi3, Cdc42/Rac1 and p21-activated kinase 1 pathway, and m3-mediated MLC20
Signalling via m3 and m2 receptors in smooth muscles involved activation of two G-protein-dependent pathways by each receptor. m2 receptors were coupled via Gbetagammai3 with activation ofExpand
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Conjugated bile acid–activated S1P receptor 2 is a key regulator of sphingosine kinase 2 and hepatic gene expression
Bile acids are important hormones during the feed/fast cycle, allowing the liver to coordinately regulate nutrient metabolism. How they accomplish this has not been fully elucidated. Conjugated bileExpand
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