Protein delivery into eukaryotic cells by type III secretion machines
A bacterial organelle that has specifically evolved to deliver bacterial proteins into eukaryotic cells is encoded by a large number of bacterial species that are symbiotic or pathogenic for humans, other animals including insects or nematodes, and plants.
Flagellin A is essential for the virulence of Vibrio anguillarum
FlaA is needed for crossing the fish integument and may play a role in virulence after invasion of the host and is a single transcriptional unit.
Target cell contact triggers expression and polarized transfer of Yersinia YopE cytotoxin into mammalian cells.
The results suggest that the pathogen senses cell structures and focuses the transfer of YopE to occur solely at the interaction zone between the bacterium and the eukaryotic cell.
The Yersinia Yop virulon: a bacterial system for subverting eukaryotic cells
The Yop virulon enables Yersinia spp. (Y. pestis, Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. enterocolitica) to survive and multiply in the lymphoid tissues of their host. It is an integrated system allowing…
The surface‐located YopN protein is involved in calcium signal transduction in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis
YopN was found to be part of an operon that is induced during the low‐calcium response, and Insertional inactivation of the yopN gene resulted in derepressed transcription of yop genes.
The YopB protein of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is essential for the translocation of Yop effector proteins across the target cell plasma membrane and displays a contact‐dependent membrane disrupting…
It is proposed that YopB is essential for the formation of a pore in the target cell membrane that is required for the cell‐to‐cell transfer of Yop effector proteins.
The PTPase YopH inhibits uptake of Yersinia, tyrosine phosphorylation of p130Cas and FAK, and the associated accumulation of these proteins in peripheral focal adhesions
It is suggested that p130Cas and FAK are substrates for YopH and that the dephosphorylation of these proteins impairs the uptake of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis into HeLa cells.
Modulation of Virulence Factor Expression by Pathogen Target Cell Contact
A key role is suggested for the type III secretion system of pathogenic bacteria to coordinate secretion with expression of virulence factors after physical contact with the target cell.
Cloning of a metalloprotease gene involved in the virulence mechanism of Vibrio anguillarum
Comparative analyses of the protein sequence showed high homologies to other bacterial metalloproteases within the zinc-binding and active-site regions, and implications for the role of the metaloprotease in the virulence mechanism of V. anguillarum are discussed.
Yersinia YopE is targeted for type III secretion by N‐terminal, not mRNA, signals
Mutational analysis of the YopE N‐terminus revealed that a synthetic amphipathic sequence of eight residues is sufficient to serve as a targeting signal for type III secretion, and ‘rapid secretion’ ofYopE is also secreted rapidly upon a shift to secretion‐permissive conditions.