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Conus venoms: a rich source of novel ion channel-targeted peptides.
The cone snails (genus Conus) are venomous marine molluscs that use small, structured peptide toxins (conotoxins) for prey capture, defense, and competitor deterrence. Each of the 500 Conus canExpand
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Mapping the site of block by tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin of sodium channel II
The SS2 and adjacent regions of the 4 internal repeats of sodium channel II were subjected to single mutations involving, mainly, charged amino acid residues. These sodium channel mutants, expressedExpand
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Calcium channel characteristics conferred on the sodium channel by single mutations
THE sodium channel, one of the family of structurally homologous voltage-gated ion channels1, differs from other members, such as the calcium and the potassium channels, in its high selectivity forExpand
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Strategy for rapid immobilization of prey by a fish-hunting marine snail
SOME venomous animals capture prey with remarkable efficiency and speed. The purple cone, Conus purpurascens, uses two parallel physiological mechanisms requiring multiple neurotoxins to immobilizeExpand
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Functional expression of a rat homologue of the voltage gated either á go‐go potassium channel reveals differences in selectivity and activation kinetics between the Drosophila channel and its
We have cloned a mammalian (rat) homologue of Drosophila ether á go‐go (eag) cDNA, which encodes a distinct type of voltage activated potassium (K) channel. The derived Drosophila and rat eagExpand
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μ-Conotoxin PIIIA, a New Peptide for Discriminating among Tetrodotoxin-Sensitive Na Channel Subtypes
We report the characterization of a new sodium channel blocker, μ-conotoxin PIIIA (μ-PIIIA). The peptide has been synthesized chemically and its disulfide bridging pattern determined. The structureExpand
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Molecular basis for pharmacological differences between brain and cardiac sodium channels
Sodium channels from brain and heart, whose primary structures are known, differ in their sensitivity to block by the guadinium toxins tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin and to block by external Zn2+ andExpand
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Extracellular Mg2+ regulates activation of rat eag potassium channel
The rat homologue of Drosophila ether à gogo cDNA (rat eag) encodes voltage-activated potassium (K) channels with distinct activation properties. Using the Xenopus expression system, we examined theExpand
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Depletion of InsP3 stores activates a Ca2+ and K+ current by means of a phosphatase and a diffusible messenger
IN non-excitable cells, release of Ca2+ from the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3)-sensitive store can activate Ca2+ entry1–3. Very little is known about the signal mechanism relating storeExpand
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An O-glycosylated neuroexcitatory conus peptide.
We purified and characterized a novel peptide from the venom of the fish-hunting cone snail Conus striatus that inhibits voltage-gated K+ channels. The peptide, kappaA-conotoxin SIVA, causesExpand
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