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Non-invasive electrical and magnetic stimulation of the brain, spinal cord, roots and peripheral nerves: Basic principles and procedures for routine clinical and research application. An updated
These guidelines provide an up-date of previous IFCN report on “Non-invasive electrical and magnetic stimulation of the brain, spinal cord and roots: basic principles and procedures for routineExpand
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Preconditioning of Low-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Evidence for Homeostatic Plasticity in the Human Motor Cortex
Recent experimental work in animals has emphasized the importance of homeostatic plasticity as a means of stabilizing the properties of neuronal circuits. Here, we report a phenomenon that indicatesExpand
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How does transcranial DC stimulation of the primary motor cortex alter regional neuronal activity in the human brain?
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the primary motor hand area (M1) can produce lasting polarity‐specific effects on corticospinal excitability and motor learning in humans. In 16Expand
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Cerebral metabolic changes accompanying conversion of mild cognitive impairment into Alzheimer's disease: a PET follow-up study
A high percentage of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) develop clinical dementia of the Alzheimer type (AD) within 1 year. The aim of this longitudinal study was to identifyExpand
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Transcranial magnetic stimulation: new insights into representational cortical plasticity
Abstract. In the last decade, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been used increasingly as a tool to explore the mechanisms and consequences of cortical plasticity in the intact humanExpand
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Acute Remapping within the Motor System Induced by Low-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of human primary motor cortex (M1) changes cortical excitability at the site of stimulation and at distant sites without affecting simple motorExpand
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Functional MRI of the immediate impact of transcranial magnetic stimulation on cortical and subcortical motor circuits
Recent studies indicate that the cortical effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) may not be localized to the site of stimulation, but spread to other distant areas. Using echo‐planarExpand
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Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex in writer’s cramp
Objective: To study the short-term effects of slow repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the motor cortex on cortical excitability and handwriting in patients with writer’s cramp.Expand
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Age-related decrease in paired-pulse intracortical inhibition in the human primary motor cortex
Using biphasic magnetic stimuli, paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) at short interstimulus intervals (ISIs) was employed to investigate age-related changes in the balance betweenExpand
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Preconditioning with transcranial direct current stimulation sensitizes the motor cortex to rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation and controls the direction of after-effects
BACKGROUND Rapid-rate repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can produce a lasting increase in cortical excitability in healthy subjects or induce beneficial effects in patients withExpand
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