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Maltose/Maltodextrin System of Escherichia coli: Transport, Metabolism, and Regulation
  • W. Boos, H. Shuman
  • Medicine, Biology
    Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews
  • 1 March 1998
The maltose system of Escherichia coli offers an unusually rich set of enzymes, transporters, and regulators as objects of study, and basic issues that require clarification concerning the mechanism of MalT-mediated activation, repression by the transporter, biosynthesis and assembly of the outer membrane and inner membrane transporter proteins, and interrelationships between the mal enzymes and those of glucose and glycogen metabolism.
Host cell killing and bacterial conjugation require overlapping sets of genes within a 22-kb region of the Legionella pneumophila genome.
It is found that L. pneumophila can mediate plasmid DNA transfer at a frequency of 10(-3) to 10(-4) per donor and whether conjugation itself plays a role in macrophage killing is currently unknown.
The Genomic Sequence of the Accidental Pathogen Legionella pneumophila
The genome of Legionella pneumophila includes a 45–kilobase pair element that can exist in chromosomal and episomal forms, selective expansions of important gene families, genes for unexpected metabolic pathways, and previously unknown candidate virulence determinants.
Identification of Legionella pneumophila genes required for growth within and killing of human macrophages
The ability of L. pneumophila to kill macrophages seems to be determined by many genetic loci, almost all of which are associated with sensitivity to NaCl.
Pathogen effector protein screening in yeast identifies Legionella factors that interfere with membrane trafficking.
Processing studies in yeast indicate that VipA, VipD, and VipF inhibit lysosomal protein trafficking by different mechanisms; overexpressing VIPA has an effect on carboxypeptidase Y trafficking, whereas VIPD interferes with multivesicular body formation at the late endosome and endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi body transport.
The Legionella pneumophila rpoS Gene Is Required for Growth within Acanthamoeba castellanii
The data suggest that L. pneumophila possesses a growth phase-dependent resistance to stress that is independent of RPOS control and that RpoS likely regulates genes that enable it to survive in the environment within protozoa.
Cryptococcus neoformans interactions with amoebae suggest an explanation for its virulence and intracellular pathogenic strategy in macrophages
The results suggest that the virulence of Cn for mammalian cells is a consequence of adaptations that have evolved for protection against environmental predators such as amoebae and provide an explanation for the broad host range of this pathogenic fungus.
Legionella Eukaryotic-Like Type IV Substrates Interfere with Organelle Trafficking
It is demonstrated that multiple Leg proteins are Icm/Dot-dependent substrates and that LegC3, LegC7/YlfA, and LegC2/ylfB may contribute to the intracellular trafficking of L. pneumophila by interfering with highly conserved pathways that modulate vesicle maturation.
Evidence for Acquisition of Legionella Type IV Secretion Substrates via Interdomain Horizontal Gene Transfer
These findings suggest that in L. pneumophila, interdomain HGT may have been a major mechanism for the acquisition of determinants of infection.
Legionella Effectors That Promote Nonlytic Release from Protozoa
Analysis of mutant strains suggests that the Lep proteins may enable the Legionella to commandeer a protozoan exocytic pathway for dissemination of the pathogen.