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Closed‐loop Feedback Control of Methohexital Anesthesia by Quantitative EEG Analysis in Humans
A combined pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic model of methohexital was used to establish and evaluate feedback control of methohexital anesthesia in 13 volunteers. The median frequency of the EEGExpand
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Concepts of EEG processing: from power spectrum to bispectrum, fractals, entropies and all that.
  • H. Schwilden
  • Medicine
  • Best practice & research. Clinical…
  • 1 March 2006
Over the past two decades, methods of processing the EEG for monitoring anaesthesia have greatly expanded. Whereas power spectral analysis was once the most important tool for extracting EEGExpand
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Population pharmacokinetics of dexmedetomidine during long-term sedation in intensive care patients.
BACKGROUND Dexmedetomidine is a highly selective and potent α(2)-adrenoceptor agonist registered for sedation of patients in intensive care units. There is little information on factors possiblyExpand
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Closed-loop feedback control of propofol anaesthesia by quantitative EEG analysis in humans.
Propofol was administered for 2 h to 11 volunteers by an adaptive feedback control algorithm based on quantitative EEG analysis. Median EEG frequency served as the control variable. The range 2-3 HzExpand
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Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling of the respiratory depressant effect of alfentanil.
BACKGROUND Although respiratory depression is the most well-known and dangerous side effect of opioids, no pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model exists for its quantitative analysis. The developmentExpand
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A general method for calculating the dosage scheme in linear pharmacokinetics
  • H. Schwilden
  • Mathematics, Medicine
  • European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
  • 2004
SummaryThe problem of correctly administering drugs is considered with respect to pharmacokinetics. A general method for calculating the dosage scheme for any linear model is presented, if theExpand
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Oxycodone clearance is markedly reduced with advancing age: a population pharmacokinetic study.
BACKGROUND Oxycodone is a µ-opioid receptor agonist, the global use of which has increased vigorously during the past decade. The pharmacokinetic data of oxycodone available for elderly are limited,Expand
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Model‐based adaptive closed‐loop feedback control of atracurium‐induced neuromuscular blockade
Closed‐loop control of atracurium‐induced neuromuscular blockade by a model‐based adaptive feedback algorithm is described. Mean offsets (± s.d.) from setpoints at 50, 70 and 90% neuromuscular blocksExpand
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Midazolam Therapeutic Drug Monitoring in Intensive Care Sedation: A 5-Year Survey
During a 5-year period, 1997 to 2002, therapeutic drug monitoring of midazolam plasma concentrations in combination with the level of sedation as assessed by the Ramsay sedation scale was performedExpand
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Total intravenous anaesthesia with propofol and alfentanil by computer‐assisted infusion
The combination of propofol and alfentanil was administered to 20 patients for total intravenous anaesthesia during general surgery. The infusion rates for both drugs were controlled byExpand
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