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NINE SECOND‐ORDER NATIONAL ELECTIONS – A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE ANALYSIS OF EUROPEAN ELECTION RESULTS
The composition of the directly elected European Parliament does not precisely reflect the 'real' balance of political forces in the European Community. As long as the national political systemsExpand
Dynamic Representation
TLDR
It appears that political representation of EU preferences works rather well regarding the grand directions of policy making, and that party elites behave responsively in view of changing EU preferences among their voters. Expand
Political representation and legitimacy in the European Union
How severe a problem is what many call the ‘democratic deficit’ of the EU? Despite a voluminous theoretical literature dealing with this question, there is hardly any systematic empiricalExpand
The European Parliament Elections of June 2004: Still Second-Order?
A quarter of a century ago the first series of European Parliament elections were characterised as second-order national elections. Much has changed since, which might have had an impact upon thisExpand
Does personalization increase turnout? Spitzenkandidaten in the 2014 European Parliament elections
The 2014 European Parliament elections were the first elections where the major political groups each nominated a lead candidate (Spitzenkandidat) for the Commission presidency in the hope that thisExpand
The 2014 European Parliament Elections in Southern Europe: Second-Order or Critical Elections?
The article provides a comparative analysis of the 2014 European Parliament elections across the six countries of Southern Europe by gauging the performance of the second-order election model. BothExpand
Political Leaders and Democratic Elections
1. Introduction 2. Changing Patterns of Political Communication 3. Party Leader Effects on the Vote 4. Political Leaders in Westminster Systems - 5. US Party Leaders: Exploring the Meaning ofExpand
Party Identification and Party Choice
This chapter tests the validity of two alternative theoretical perspectives on the evolution of party identification. According to the first perspective, which is based on the theory ofExpand
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