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Problem‐based learning: rationale and description
- H. Schmidt
- Computer ScienceMedical education
- 1 January 1983
The process of problem‐based learning is described and measured against three principles of learning: activation of prior knowledge, elaboration and encoding specificity.
The psychological basis of problem‐based learning: a review of the evidence
There is no evidence that PBL curricula result in any improvement in general, content-free problem-solving skills, and there are several potential advantages for students' learning claimed for problem-based learning.
Foundations of problem‐based learning: some explanatory notes
- H. Schmidt
- EducationMedical education
- 1 September 1993
It is argued that problem‐based learning, above all, promotes the activation of prior knowledge and its elaboration and that the processing of new information is indeed facilitated by discussion of a relevant problem.
Description, justification and clarification: a framework for classifying the purposes of research in medical education
This review concludes that the quality of medical education research in the United States is under threat due to a combination of factors, including the high level of uncertainty about the sources of abuse, and the low level of awareness of abuse in the medical profession.
Effectiveness of problem‐based learning curricula: theory, practice and paper darts
Evidence is presented that (a) cognitive research is not contrived and irrelevant, (b) curriculum level interventions are doomed to fail and (c) education needs more theory‐based research.
A cognitive perspective on medical expertise: theory and implication [published erratum appears in Acad Med 1992 Apr;67(4):287]
- H. Schmidt, G. Norman, H. Boshuizen
- MedicineAcademic medicine : journal of the Association of…
- 1 October 1990
A new theory of the development of expertise in medicine is outlined, which assumes that expertise is not so much a matter of superior reasoning skills or in-depth knowledge of pathophysiological states as it is based on cognitive structures that describe the features of prototypical or even actual patients.
The process of problem‐based learning: what works and why
Medical Education 2011: 45: 792–806
On the Role of Biomedical Knowledge in Clinical Reasoning by Experts, Intermediates and Novices
It was shown that experts have more in-depth biomedical knowledge than novices and subjects at intermediate levels of expertise and generally support a three-stage model of expertise development in medicine consisting of acquisition of biomedical knowledge, practical experience, and integration of theoretical and experientall knowledge resulting in knowledge encapsulation.
A Cognitive Perspective on Medical Expertise: Theory and Implications
A new theory of the development of expertise in medicine is outlined, which assumes that expertise is not so much a matter of superior reasoning skills or in-depth knowledge of pathophysiological states as it is based on cognitive structures that describe the featur.
Constructivist, Problem-Based Learning Does Work: A Meta-Analysis of Curricular Comparisons Involving a Single Medical School
Effects of problem-based learning as reported in curricular comparison studies have been shown to be inconsistent over different medical schools. Therefore, we decided to summarize effects of a…