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Stem/progenitor cells from bone marrow decrease neuronal death in global ischemia by modulation of inflammatory/immune responses
TLDR
The observed beneficial effects of hMSCs were largely explained by their modulation of inflammatory and immune responses, apparently by alternative activation of microglia and/or macrophages. Expand
Gp91phox (NOX2) in classically activated microglia exacerbates traumatic brain injury
TLDR
Classical activated microglia promote ROS formation through gp91phox and have an important role in brain damage following TBI and may provide a new therapeutic strategy in combating post-traumatic brain injury. Expand
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) decreases ischemic neuronal cell death in association with IL-6.
TLDR
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide prevents neuronal cell death after ischemia via a signaling mechanism involving IL-6, and phosphorylated STAT, pSTAT3 and pERK were observed in the PACAP(+/-) mice, whereas a reduction in p STAT3 was recorded in the IL- 6 null mice. Expand
Activation of microglia induces symptoms of Parkinson’s disease in wild-type, but not in IL-1 knockout mice
TLDR
The findings suggest that activation of microglia by LPS causes functional changes such as dopaminergic neuron attenuation in an IL-1-dependent manner, resulting in PD-like behavioral impairment. Expand
Role of PACAP in Ischemic Neural Death
TLDR
The studies suggest that neuroprotection by PACAP might extend the therapeutic time window for treatment of ischemia-related conditions, such as stroke. Expand
Pleiotropic functions of PACAP in the CNS: neuroprotection and neurodevelopment.
TLDR
The results suggest that PACAP itself and PACAP-stimulated secretion of IL-6 synergistically inhibit apoptotic cell death in the hippocampus, and strongly suggest thatPACAP plays very important roles in neuroprotection in adult brain as well as astrocyte differentiation during development. Expand
Elevated plasma levels of bilirubin in patients with neurotrauma reflect its pathophysiological role in free radical scavenging.
TLDR
Data indicate that physiological concentrations of bilirubin have antioxidant properties and that it constitutes one of the biological defense mechanisms in neurotrauma patients, as well as in in vitro studies, at physiological concentrations. Expand
Interleukin-1 participates in the classical and alternative activation of microglia/macrophages after spinal cord injury
TLDR
In in vivo experiments, IL-1 suppressed SCI in a process mediated by the reduction of inflammatory responses is demonstrated and it is suggested that IL- 1 participates in both the classical and alternative activation of MG in in vivo and in vitro systems. Expand
Progressive expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiogenesis after chronic ischemic hypoperfusion in rat.
TLDR
It is suggested that angiogenesis might be induced in adult brain through the support of growth factors and transplantation of vascular progenitor cells, and that neovascularization might be a therapeutic strategy for children and adults with diseases such as vascular dementia. Expand
Isolation of Peptide Transport System-6 from Brain Endothelial Cells: Therapeutic Effects with Antisense Inhibition in Alzheimer and Stroke Models
TLDR
Treatment with antisense +PACAP27 improved cognition in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease and reduced infarct size after cerebral ischemia, shows that inhibition of peptide efflux pumps is a potential strategy for drug delivery to brain. Expand
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