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Percutaneous absorption of N,N-dimethylformamide in humans
Skin penetration fo N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) liquid or vapour was studied in volunteers and the contention that AMCC should be used instead of “MF” as the most suitable biomarker of DMF in cases where percutaneous intake can occur is supported. Expand
Absorption, metabolism and elimination of N,N-dimethylformamide in humans
In contrast to slow elimination of AMCC after exposure toDMF, AMCC was eliminated rapidly after AMCC intake, which could be explained by rate-limiting reversible protein binding of a reactive metabolic intermediate of DMF, possibly methylisocyanate. Expand
Improved gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric determination of the N-methylcarbamoyl adduct at the N-terminal valine of globin, a metabolic product of the solvent N,N-dimethylformamide.
Toxicokinetic studies in volunteers laid the grounds for setting the reference value for biological monitoring of occupational exposure to DMF, and has been used to determine the background levels of MVH in unexposed subjects. Expand
Biological monitoring of N,N-dimethylformamide. Reference value for N-methylcarbamoyl adduct at the N-terminal valine of globin as a biomarker of chronic occupational exposure
The value of 135 nmol MVH/g globin is recommended to be used as a new reference value for biomonitoring of integrated exposure to DMF over a long period. Expand
1,2- and 1,4-Cyclohexanediol: major urinary metabolites and biomarkers of exposure to cyclohexane, cyclohexanone, and cyclohexanol in humans
Determination of CH-diols in end-of-shift urine samples is recommended as a useful new method of biomonitoring of CH, CH-ol, and CH-one at the workplace, however, due to accumulation of H2O in the body during repeated exposure, quantitative relationships between the exposure and the level of CHs have to be adjusted according to the day of sampling during the working week. Expand
New urinary metabolites formed from ring-oxidized metabolic intermediates of styrene.
Findings indicate a capability of 3,4-STO to react with cellular thiol groups despite its rapid isomerization to vinylphenol in an aqueous environment. Expand
Uptake, metabolism and elimination of cyclohexanone in humans
The metabolism and toxicokinetics of cyclohexanone (CH-one), an important solvent and chemical intermediate, have been studied in volunteers during and after 8-h exposures to CH-one vapour at aExpand
Studies on the methyl isocyanate adducts with globin.
The HPLC/APCI-MS analysis of globin from rats injected with DMF or MF, revealed the presence of the MIC adducts with both Val and Lys, and also the Lys adduct in such human globin samples can be feasible to analysis and is therefore considered for further studies as a potential biomarker of exposure to DMF. Expand
N-Methylcarbamoyl-lysine adduct in globin: a new metabolic product and potential biomarker of N, N-dimethylformamide in humans.
It is shown that MLU can be easily measured in globin of workers exposed to DMF, and the findings indicate a long-term persistence of MLU in the human body, and consequently, its potential as a biomarker of chronic exposure toDMF. Expand
Ethylene oxide (EO, fig. 1), an important industrial intermediate, is also used as a sterilizing agent for heatsensitive medical equipment and consumables. Due to its electrophilic nature, EO is aExpand