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Astrocytes as determinants of disease progression in inherited amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Dominant mutations in superoxide dismutase cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), an adult-onset neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by the loss of motor neurons. Using mice carryingExpand
Neurotransmitter release regulated by a MALS–liprin-α presynaptic complex
Synapses are highly specialized intercellular junctions organized by adhesive and scaffolding molecules that align presynaptic vesicular release with postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptors. TheExpand
Localization of two cholinergic markers, choline acetyltransferase and vesicular acetylcholine transporter in the central nervous system of the rat: in situ hybridization histochemistry and
Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) are proteins that are required for cholinergic neurotransmission. Present knowledge concerning the organization ofExpand
miRNA malfunction causes spinal motor neuron disease
Defective RNA metabolism is an emerging mechanism involved in ALS pathogenesis and possibly in other neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we show that microRNA (miRNA) activity is essential forExpand
A null mutation in the human CNTF gene is not causally related to neurological diseases
We report a null mutation in the human ciliary neurotrophic factor gene (CNTF). The mutated allele shows a G to A transition producing a new splice acceptor site and the resulting mRNA species codesExpand
Critical roles of acetylcholine and the muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the regulation of immune function.
Lymphocytes express both muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (mAChRs and nAChRs, respectively), and stimulation of mAChRs and nAChRs produces various biochemical and functionalExpand
Expression and function of genes encoding cholinergic components in murine immune cells.
It is now evident that acetylcholine (ACh) synthesized by choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and released from T cells during antigen presentation binds to muscarinic and nicotinic ACh receptorsExpand
Calcium-permeable AMPA receptors promote misfolding of mutant SOD1 protein and development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in a transgenic mouse model.
Mutant Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) protein aggregation has been suggested as responsible for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), although the operative mediating factors are as yetExpand
Human choline acetyltransferase mRNAs with different 5'-region produce a 69-kDa major translation product.
Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT, EC is the biosynthetic enzyme for acetylcholine. We have previously shown that multiple ChAT mRNA species with different 5'-noncoding regions are expressedExpand
Distribution of the high-affinity choline transporter in the central nervous system of the rat
In cholinergic nerve terminals, Na(+)- and Cl(-)-dependent, hemicholinium-3-sensitive, high-affinity choline uptake is thought to be the rate-limiting step in acetylcholine synthesis. TheExpand