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Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation.
People in different cultures have strikingly different construals of the self, of others, and of the interdependence of the 2. These construals can influence, and in many cases determine, the veryExpand
Possible Selves
The concept of possible selves is introduced to complement current conceptions of self-knowledge. Possible selves represent individuals' ideas of what they might become, what they would like toExpand
Self-schemata and processing information about the self.
Attempts to organize, summarize, or explain one's own behavior in a particular domain result in the formation of cognitive structures about the self or selfschemata. Self-schemata are cognitiveExpand
THE DYNAMIC SELF-CONCEPT: A Social Psychological Perspective
incorporating first behaviors (e.g. "good at doing sums"), then traits ("smart"), then single abstractions ("scientific"), then higher order abstrac­ tions ("intellectual"). Within each of theExpand
Is there a universal need for positive self-regard?
The need for positive self-regard, as it is currently conceptualized, is not a universal, but rather is rooted in significant aspects of North American culture. Expand
Individual and collective processes in the construction of the self: self-enhancement in the United States and self-criticism in Japan.
In support of the collective constructionist theory of the self, 2 studies showed that American situations are relatively conducive to self-enhancement and American people are relatively likely to engage in self- enhancement and, second, that Japanese situations are comparatively conducive toSelf-criticism and Japanese people are comparatively likely to engaging in self -criticism. Expand
Possible selves and delinquency.
It was found that the officially nondelinquent youths were quite likely to display balance between their expectations and fears, unlike the most delinquent youth, and a conventional measure of self-esteem that indicates how people feel about themselves currently did not predict degree of delinquency. Expand
Unseen disadvantage: how American universities' focus on independence undermines the academic performance of first-generation college students.
Four studies test the hypothesis that first-generation students underperform because interdependent norms from their mostly working-class backgrounds constitute a mismatch with middle-class independent norms prevalent in universities and address the urgent need to recognize cultural obstacles that contribute to the social class achievement gap. Expand
How Seductive Details Do Their Damage : A Theory of Cognitive Interest in Science Learning
In 4 experiments, students who read expository passages with seductive details (i.e., interesting but irrelevant adjuncts) recalled significantly fewer main ideas and generated significantly fewerExpand
Deviance or uniqueness, harmony or conformity? A cultural analysis.
Uniqueness has positive connotations of freedom and independence in American culture, whereas conformity has positive connotations of connectedness and harmony in East Asian culture. The presentExpand