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Alkaloids from amphibian skin: a tabulation of over eight-hundred compounds.
A diverse array of biologically active, lipid-soluble alkaloids have been discovered in amphibian skin. Such alkaloids include the following: the steroidal samandarines from salamanders, theExpand
A review of chemical ecology in poison frogs
There is variation in nearly every attribute of the dendrobatids system and some of the challenges associated with unraveling the complexities of this model system are described. Expand
Heteroresistance to Fluconazole in Cryptococcus neoformans Is Intrinsic and Associated with Virulence
It is shown that heteroresistance to azole is universal and suggests that heterorsistance contributes to relapse of cryptococcosis during azole maintenance therapy. Expand
Oribatid mites as a major dietary source for alkaloids in poison frogs
The results of this study indicate that mites are a significant arthropod repository of a variety of alkaloids and represent a major dietary source of alkAloids in poison frogs. Expand
Homobatrachotoxin in the genus Pitohui: chemical defense in birds?
Three passerine species in the genus Pitohui, endemic to the New Guinea subregion, contain the steroidal alkaloid homobatrachotoxin, apparently as a chemical defense, suggesting that birds and frogs independently evolved this class of alkaloids. Expand
Geographic and Seasonal Variation in Alkaloid-Based Chemical Defenses of Dendrobates pumilio from Bocas del Toro, Panama
Individual alkaloid variation in the dendrobatid poison frog D. pumilio is examined among seven populations and between two seasons on Isla Bastimentos, located in the Bocas del Toro archipelago of Panama, illustrating that chemical defense in this species can vary on a small spatial and temporal scale. Expand
Evidence for biosynthesis of pseudophrynamine alkaloids by an Australian myobatrachid frog (pseudophryne) and for sequestration of dietary pumiliotoxins.
Pseudophryne frogs appear to biosynthesize PSs, but to sequester into skin dietary PTXs, the first evidence indicating that certain frogs are capable of synthesizing rather than merely sequestering alkaloids. Expand
Identification of a Cryptococcus neoformans Cytochrome P450 Lanosterol 14α-Demethylase (Erg11) Residue Critical for Differential Susceptibility between Fluconazole/Voriconazole and
This study shows the importance of the Y145F alteration of Erg11 in C. neoformans for manifestation of differential susceptibility toward different triazoles and underscores the necessity of in vitro susceptibility testing for each FLC-resistant C. Neoformans clinical isolate against different groups of azoles. Expand
Indolizidine 239Q and quinolizidine 275I. Major alkaloids in two Argentinian bufonid toads (Melanophryniscus).
Structures of two major alkaloids 239Q and 275I were determined by mass, FTIR, and NMR spectral analysis as 5Z,9Z-3-(1-hydroxybutyl)-5-propylindolizidine and 6Z,10E-4,6-di(pent-4-enyl) quinolIZidine, respectively. Expand