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Heterogeneity of multiple sclerosis lesions: Implications for the pathogenesis of demyelination
TLDR
At a given time point of the disease, the patterns of demyelination were heterogeneous between patients, but were homogenous within multiple active lesions from the same patient, suggesting that MS may be a disease with heterogeneous pathogenetic mechanisms.
Cortical demyelination and diffuse white matter injury in multiple sclerosis.
TLDR
Global brain pathology in multiple sclerosis is analysed, focusing on the normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) and the cortex, to suggest that multiple sclerosis starts as a focal inflammatory disease of the CNS, which gives rise to circumscribed demyelinated plaques in the white matter.
The Immunopathology of Multiple Sclerosis: An Overview
TLDR
Recent evidence is described that the spectrum of MS pathology is much broader, including demyelination in the cortex and deep gray matter nuclei, as well as diffuse injury of the normal‐appearing white matter.
A role for humoral mechanisms in the pathogenesis of Devic's neuromyelitis optica.
TLDR
The extent of complement activation, eosinophilic infiltration and vascular fibrosis observed in the Devic NMO cases is more prominent compared with that in prototypic multiple sclerosis, and supports a role for humoral immunity in the pathogenesis of NMO.
Pathological mechanisms in progressive multiple sclerosis
MicroRNA profiling of multiple sclerosis lesions identifies modulators of the regulatory protein CD47.
TLDR
It is suggested that microRNA dysregulated in multiple sclerosis lesions reduce CD47 in brain resident cells, releasing macrophages from inhibitory control, thereby promoting phagocytosis of myelin and have broad implications for microRNA-regulated macrophage activation in inflammatory diseases.
Clinical and radiographic spectrum of pathologically confirmed tumefactive multiple sclerosis
TLDR
Although lesion size >5 cm was associated with a slightly higher EDSS at last follow-up, long-term prognosis in patients with disease duration >10 years was better compared with a population-based multiple sclerosis cohort matched for disease duration (EDSS 3.5; P < 0.001).
Oligodendrocytes: biology and pathology
TLDR
The different pathways leading to oligodendrocyte and myelin loss in human CNS diseases are laid out, and the different principles leading to the restoration of myelin sheaths or to a failure to do so are revealed.
Inflammatory cortical demyelination in early multiple sclerosis.
TLDR
In this cohort of patients with early-stage multiple sclerosis, cortical demyelinating lesions were frequent, inflammatory, and strongly associated with meningeal inflammation.
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