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Reduced Genome of the Thioautotrophic Intracellular Symbiont in a Deep-Sea Clam, Calyptogena okutanii
TLDR
The complete genome sequence of the symbiont of Calyptogena okutanii is presented, which is the smallest reported genome in autotrophic bacteria and encodes 939 protein-coding genes, including those for thioautotrophy and for the syntheses of almost all amino acids and various cofactors.
Extremotolerant tardigrade genome and improved radiotolerance of human cultured cells by tardigrade-unique protein
TLDR
Using human cultured cells, it is demonstrated that a tardigrade-unique DNA-associating protein suppresses X-ray-induced DNA damage by ∼40% and improves radiotolerance, indicating the relevance of tardigrate-unique proteins to tolerability and tardigades could be a bountiful source of new protection genes and mechanisms.
Intranuclear verrucomicrobial symbionts and evidence of lateral gene transfer to the host protist in the termite gut
TLDR
It is suggested that this group is widely distributed as intranuclear symbionts of diverse protists in termite guts and that they might have affected the evolution of the host genome through lateral gene transfer.
Two Novel Heat-Soluble Protein Families Abundantly Expressed in an Anhydrobiotic Tardigrade
TLDR
A novel repertoire of major heat-soluble proteins in these anhydrobiotic animals is revealed and it is revealed that tardigrades might have evolved novel protein families with a heat- soluble property.
Dominant ectosymbiotic bacteria of cellulolytic protists in the termite gut also have the potential to digest lignocellulose.
TLDR
It is suggested that the ectosymbiont digests lignocellulose and provides nutrients to the host termites, and hypothesize that the hydrolytic activity might also function as a pretreatment for the host protist to effectively decompose the crystalline cellulose components.
Isolation of Paenibacillus illinoisensis That Produces Cyclodextrin Glucanotransferase Resistant to Organic Solvents
TLDR
A bacterium that secreted cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) in a medium overlaid with n-hexane was isolated and identified as Paenibacillus illinoisensis strain ST-12 K and was stable and active in the presence of large amounts of various organic solvents.
Genome analyses of uncultured TG2/ZB3 bacteria in ‘Margulisbacteria’ specifically attached to ectosymbiotic spirochetes of protists in the termite gut
TLDR
It is proposed that a novel genus, ‘Candidatus Termititenax’, which represents a hitherto uncharacterised class-level clade in ‘Margulisbacteria’ is proposed, adding another layer, i.e., cellular association between bacteria, to the multi-layered symbiotic system in the termite gut.
Expression of genes for sulfur oxidation in the intracellular chemoautotrophic symbiont of the deep-sea bivalve Calyptogena okutanii
TLDR
The result of the RT-PCR showed that genes encoding key enzymes catalyzing sulfur oxidation were all equally expressed in the Vok under three different environmental conditions, indicating that all sulfur oxidation pathways function simultaneously to support intracellular symbiotic life.
Discovery and Complete Genome Sequence of a Bacteriophage from an Obligate Intracellular Symbiont of a Cellulolytic Protist in the Termite Gut
TLDR
This is the first report of a phage from an obligate, mutualistic endosymbiont permanently associated with eukaryotic cells obtained during a genome analysis of “Candidatus Azobacteroides pseudotrichonymphae” phylotype ProJPt-1.
Reductive genome evolution in chemoautotrophic intracellular symbionts of deep-sea Calyptogena clams
TLDR
It is proposed that extant Calyptogena symbiont genomes are in an actively reducing stage of RGE consisting of small and large deletions, and the deletions are caused by short-repeat dependent RIR along with regeneration of short-repeats.
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