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The Neandertal type site revisited: Interdisciplinary investigations of skeletal remains from the Neander Valley, Germany
This work reports excavations of cave sediments that were removed from the Feldhofer caves in 1856 that yielded over 60 human skeletal fragments, along with a large series of Paleolithic artifacts and faunal material that represents the first interdisciplinary analysis of Neandertal remains incorporating genetic, direct dating, and morphological dimensions simultaneously.
DNA sequence of the mitochondrial hypervariable region II from the neandertal type specimen.
The results support the concept that the Neandertal mtDNA evolved separately from that of modern humans for a substantial amount of time and lends no support to the idea that they contributed mtDNA to contemporary modern humans.