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Mediators and moderators of treatment effects in randomized clinical trials.
An analytic framework is described to identify and distinguish between moderators and mediators in RCTs when outcomes are measured dimensionally and it is recommended that R CTs routinely include and report such analyses.
The MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery, part 1: test selection, reliability, and validity.
- K. Nuechterlein, Michael F. Green, S. Marder
- Psychology, MedicineThe American journal of psychiatry
- 1 February 2008
The MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery is expected to be the standard tool for assessing cognitive change in clinical trials of cognition-enhancing drugs for schizophrenia and may also aid evaluation of cognitive remediation strategies.
Coming to terms with risk factors for eating disorders: application of risk terminology and suggestions for a general taxonomy.
- C. Jacobi, C. Hayward, M. de Zwaan, H. Kraemer, W. Agras
- Psychology, MedicinePsychological bulletin
Common risk factors from longitudinal and cross-sectional studies were gender, ethnicity, early childhood eating and gastrointestinal problems, elevated weight and shape concerns, negative self-evaluation, sexual abuse and other adverse experiences, and general psychiatric morbidity.
Clinical relevance of the primary findings of the MTA: success rates based on severity of ADHD and ODD symptoms at the end of treatment.
- J. Swanson, H. Kraemer, M. Wu
- Medicine, PsychologyJournal of the American Academy of Child and…
- 1 February 2001
These secondary analyses confirm the primary findings and clarify clinical decisions about the choice between multimodal and unimodal treatment with medication.
Coming to terms with the terms of risk.
- H. Kraemer, A. Kazdin, D. Offord, R. Kessler, P. Jensen, D. Kupfer
- PsychologyArchives of general psychiatry
- 1 April 1997
This work defines risk and a risk factor (protective factor) and their potency, set out the conceptual basis of the methods by which risk factors are identified and potency demonstrated, and proposes criteria for establishing the status of a risk factors as a fixed or variable marker or a causal risk factor.
Size of Treatment Effects and Their Importance to Clinical Research and Practice
A new approach to integrating data from multiple informants in psychiatric assessment and research: mixing and matching contexts and perspectives.
- H. Kraemer, J. Measelle, J. Ablow, M. Essex, W. Boyce, D. Kupfer
- PsychologyThe American journal of psychiatry
- 1 September 2003
A theory is proposed to explain observed patterns of interinformant discordance and a new approach to using data from multiple informants to measure characteristics of interest is suggested.
ADHD comorbidity findings from the MTA study: comparing comorbid subgroups.
- P. Jensen, S. Hinshaw, B. Vitiello
- Psychology, MedicineJournal of the American Academy of Child and…
- 1 February 2001
Three clinical profiles are indicated, ADHD co-occurring with internalizing disorders (principally parent-reported anxiety disorders) absent any concurrent disruptive disorder (ADHD + ANX), ADHD Co-occurred with ODD/CD but no anxiety (AD HD + ODD /CD), and ADHD with both anxiety and O DD/CD may be sufficiently distinct to warrant classification as ADHD subtypes different from "pure" ADHD with neither comorbidity.
How do risk factors work together? Mediators, moderators, and independent, overlapping, and proxy risk factors.
- H. Kraemer, E. Stice, A. Kazdin, D. Offord, D. Kupfer
- Medicine, PsychologyThe American journal of psychiatry
- 1 June 2001
Classifying putative risk factors into these qualitatively different types can help identify high-risk individuals in need of preventive interventions and can help inform the content of such interventions.