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Hypertrophic Scarring and Keloids: Pathomechanisms and Current and Emerging Treatment Strategies
The current understanding of the pathophysiology underlying keloid and hypertrophic scar formation is summarized and established treatments and novel therapeutic strategies are discussed.
The pH of the Skin Surface and Its Impact on the Barrier Function
The ‘acid mantle’ of the stratum corneum seems to be important for both permeability barrier formation and cutaneous antimicrobial defense. However, the origin of the acidic pH, measurable on the
Hydrolytic enzymes as virulence factors of Candida albicans
Prevention and control of Candida infections might be achieved by pharmacological or immunological tools specifically modulated to inhibit virulence factors, e.g. the family of Saps.
Retinoids in the treatment of skin aging: an overview of clinical efficacy and safety
N nanoparticles have shown a good potential in improving the stability, tolerability and efficacy of retinoid like tretinoin and retinol, however, more elaborate clinical studies are required to confirm their advantage in the delivery of topical retinoids.
Candida albicans Hyphal Formation and the Expression of the Efg1-Regulated Proteinases Sap4 to Sap6 Are Required for the Invasion of Parenchymal Organs
It can be concluded that the reduced virulence of hypha-deficient mutants is not only due to the inability to form hyphae but also due to modified expression of the SAP genes normally associated with the hyphal morphology, particularly that encoded by SAP6.
Toll-like receptors as key mediators in innate antifungal immunity.
Recent evidence further suggests that TLRs cooperate with other immune receptors involved in fungal recognition and that the selective induction of adaptor proteins finally leads to distinct signalling events upon fungal challenge.
Differential expression of secreted aspartyl proteinases in a model of human oral candidosis and in patient samples from the oral cavity
The results suggest that the pathogenesis of experimental and clinical oral candidosis is associated with the differential and temporal regulation of SAP gene expression.
Human epithelial cells establish direct antifungal defense through TLR4-mediated signaling.
It is demonstrated that human epithelial TLR4 directly protected the oral mucosa from fungal infection via a process mediated by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), the first description of such a PMN-dependent,TLR4-mediated protective mechanism at epithelial surfaces.
Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) induce protective Th1-type cytokine epithelial responses in an in vitro model of oral candidosis.
This PMN-supplemented model of oral candidosis mimics the in vivo situation, and provides a promising tool for studying the immunological interactions between keratinocytes and C. albicans, as well as the influence of PMNs on C.Albicans pathogenesis.