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Hypertrophic Scarring and Keloids: Pathomechanisms and Current and Emerging Treatment Strategies
Excessive scars form as a result of aberrations of physiologic wound healing and may arise following any Insult to the deep dermis. By causing pain, pruritus and contractures, excessive scarringExpand
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The pH of the Skin Surface and Its Impact on the Barrier Function
The ‘acid mantle’ of the stratum corneum seems to be important for both permeability barrier formation and cutaneous antimicrobial defense. However, the origin of the acidic pH, measurable on theExpand
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Lipid nanoparticles for improved topical application of drugs for skin diseases.
Due to the lower risk of systemic side effects topical treatment of skin disease appears favourable, yet the stratum corneum counteracts the penetration of xenobiotics into viable skin. ParticulateExpand
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Candida albicans Hyphal Formation and the Expression of the Efg1-Regulated Proteinases Sap4 to Sap6 Are Required for the Invasion of Parenchymal Organs
ABSTRACT The ability to change between yeast and hyphal cells (dimorphism) is known to be a virulence property of the human pathogen Candida albicans. The pathogenesis of disseminated candidosisExpand
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Retinoids in the treatment of skin aging: an overview of clinical efficacy and safety
Aging of skin is an intricate biological process consisting of two types. While intrinsic or chronological aging is an inevitable process, photoaging involves the premature aging of skin occurringExpand
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Hydrolytic enzymes as virulence factors of Candida albicans
Candida albicans is a facultative pathogenic micro‐organism that has developed several virulence traits enabling invasion of host tissues and avoidance of host defence mechanisms. Virulence factorsExpand
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Toll-like receptors as key mediators in innate antifungal immunity.
The Toll protein of Drosophila is a transmembrane receptor involved in dorsoventral polarization during embryonic development and recognition of infection. In mammals, Toll-like receptors (TLRs)Expand
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Differential expression of secreted aspartyl proteinases in a model of human oral candidosis and in patient samples from the oral cavity
Candida albicans, an opportunistic pathogen in humans, secretes secretory aspartyl proteinases (Saps), which have been correlated with virulence. We examined the temporal regulation of the mRNAExpand
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Human epithelial cells establish direct antifungal defense through TLR4-mediated signaling.
Mammalian TLRs are central mediators of the innate immune system that instruct cells of the innate and adaptive response to clear microbial infections. Here, we demonstrate that human epithelial TLR4Expand
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Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) induce protective Th1-type cytokine epithelial responses in an in vitro model of oral candidosis.
The immune response and the anticandidal activity of keratinocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) play a key role in host defence against localized Candida albicans infection. An establishedExpand
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