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Monounsaturated fatty acid modification of Wnt protein: its role in Wnt secretion.
Porcupine, a protein with structural similarities to membrane-bound O-acyltransferases, is required for Ser209-dependent acylation, as well as for Wnt-3a transport from the ER for secretion, which strongly suggest that Wnt protein requires a particular lipid modification for proper intracellular transport during the secretory process. Expand
A binding site for Gli proteins is essential for HNF-3beta floor plate enhancer activity in transgenics and can respond to Shh in vitro.
Findings suggest that Gli, and probably also Gli2, are good candidates for transcriptional activators of the HNF-3beta floor plate enhancer, and the binding site for Gli proteins is a key element for response to Shh signalling. Expand
Regulation of Gli2 and Gli3 activities by an amino-terminal repression domain: implication of Gli2 and Gli3 as primary mediators of Shh signaling.
In transgenic mouse embryos, N-terminally truncated Gli2, unlike the full length protein, activates a Shh target gene, HNF3beta, in the dorsal neural tube, thus mimicking the effect of Shh signal, which suggests that unmasking of the strong activation potential of Gli 2 through modulation of the N-Terminal repression domain is one of the key mechanisms of the Shh signaling. Expand
lefty-1 Is Required for Left-Right Determination as a Regulator of lefty-2 and nodal
lefty-1, lefty-2, and nodal are expressed on the left side of developing mouse embryos and are implicated in left-right (L-R) determination. The role of lefty-1 was examined by analyzing mutant miceExpand
Functional analysis of chicken Sox2 enhancers highlights an array of diverse regulatory elements that are conserved in mammals.
Although Sox2 expression in the early embryonic CNS appears uniform, it is actually pieced together by five separate enhancers with distinct spatio-temporal specificities, including the one activated by the neural induction signals emanating from Hensen's node. Expand
Mouse Lefty2 and zebrafish antivin are feedback inhibitors of nodal signaling during vertebrate gastrulation.
It is reported that mouse mutants for lefty2 have an expanded primitive streak and form excess mesoderm, a phenotype opposite to that of mutants for the TGF beta gene nodal, a feedback loop wherein Nodal signals induce their antagonists Lefty2 and Antivin to restrict NodAl signaling during gastrulation. Expand
Sox proteins: regulators of cell fate specification and differentiation
This Primer provides a mechanistic overview of how Sox family proteins function, as a paradigm for transcriptional regulation of development involving multi-transcription factor complexes, and discusses how Sox factors can thus regulate diverse processes during development. Expand
Involvement of Sox1, 2 and 3 in the early and subsequent molecular events of lens induction.
An essential molecular event in lens induction is the 'turning on' of the transcriptional regulators SOX2/3 in the Pax6-expressing ectoderm and these SOX proteins activate crystallin gene expression. Expand
Interplay of SOX and POU Factors in Regulation of the Nestin Gene in Neural Primordial Cells
Data support the model that synergic interactions between group B1/C SOX and class III POU within the nucleus determine Nestin expression and suggest that such interactions are involved in the regulation of neural primordial cells. Expand
Two distinct subgroups of Group B Sox genes for transcriptional activators and repressors: their expression during embryonic organogenesis of the chicken
Activating (B1) and repressing (B2) subgroups of Group B Sox genes display interesting overlaps of expression domains in developing tissues, suggesting that target genes of Group A SOX proteins are finely regulated by the counterbalance of activating and repressed SOXprotein. Expand