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Drug dependence, a chronic medical illness: implications for treatment, insurance, and outcomes evaluation.
The effects of drug dependence on social systems has helped shape the generally held view that drug dependence is primarily a social problem, not a health problem. In turn, medical approaches toExpand
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Abstinence symptomatology and psychiatric diagnosis in cocaine abusers. Clinical observations.
Abstinence symptoms and psychiatric diagnoses were evaluated in 30 chronic cocaine abusers. Structured diagnostic interviews were done within an experimental design intended to maximizeExpand
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Can the national addiction treatment infrastructure support the public's demand for quality care?
As part of a larger study of the national substance abuse treatment system, the authors had an opportunity to interview the directors and key staff from a nationally representative sample of 175 drugExpand
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The economic costs of heroin addiction in the United States.
This study documents the costs of heroin addiction in the United States, both to the addict and society at large. Using a cost-of-illness approach, costs were estimated in four broad areas: medicalExpand
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Heterogeneity of psychiatric diagnosis in treated opiate addicts.
A survey evaluated current and lifetime rates of psychiatric disorders in 533 opiate addicts in treatment at a multimodality program. Information was gathered using a structured interview format, theExpand
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Amphetamine-induced dopamine release: markedly blunted in cocaine dependence and predictive of the choice to self-administer cocaine.
OBJECTIVE Dopamine is an important mediator of the reinforcing effects of cocaine, and alterations in dopamine function might be involved in cocaine dependence. The goals of the present study were toExpand
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Methadone maintenance 4 decades later: thousands of lives saved but still controversial.
Twenty-two male patients, addicted to heroin 9.5 years (median), were stabilized using oral methadone hydrochloride and then observed for approximately 1 to 15 months (median, 3 months). TheExpand
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Imaging dopamine transmission in cocaine dependence: link between neurochemistry and response to treatment.
OBJECTIVE Previous research has shown that dopamine signaling in the limbic striatum is crucial for selecting adaptive, motivated behavior and that disrupted dopamine transmission is associated withExpand
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Injectable, sustained-release naltrexone for the treatment of opioid dependence: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
CONTEXT Oral naltrexone can completely antagonize the effects produced by opioid agonists. However, poor compliance with naltrexone has been a major obstacle to the effective treatment of opioidExpand
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Hooked on hormones? An anabolic steroid addiction hypothesis.
Widespread illicit anabolic steroid use has recently been reported. A review of available evidence suggests that elevations of serum levels of steroid hormones, including anabolic steroids, haveExpand
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