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Four hundred-million-year-old vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae.
TLDR
The discovery of arbuscules in Aglaophyton major, an Early Devonian land plant, provides unequivocal evidence that mycorrhizae were established >400 million years ago and indicates that nutrient transfer mutualism may have been in existence when plants invaded the land.
Evolution and Function of Leaf Venation Architecture: A Review
TLDR
This review summarizes current knowledge of interrelationships between the form and function of leaf venation and the evolution of Leaf venation patterns and refers to the topic of individual and intraspecific variation.
Stomata in early land plants: an anatomical and ecophysiological approach
direct comparisons of functions and functioning with extant forms and the conclusion that they are among Descriptions of Silurian and Lower Devonian stomata the most conservative of embryophyte
Fossil arbuscular mycorrhizae from the Early Devonian
AbstractThe 400 million-year-old Rhynie chert has provided a wealth of information not only of early land plants, but also of the fungi that inhabited this paleoecosystem. In this paper we report t...
Fungal endophytes in a 400-million-yr-old land plant: infection pathways, spatial distribution, and host responses.
TLDR
The host responses indicate that some of the mechanisms causing host responses in extant plants were in place 400 million yr ago, and Anatomical and life history features of N. aphylla suggest that this plant may have been particularly susceptible to colonization by fungi.
The study of fossil gymnosperms by means of cuticular analysis
  • H. Kerp
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • 1 December 1990
Cuticular analysis is a valuable method for the identification, classification and correlation of fossil gymnosperm remains. Brief characterizations of cuticles of the major gymnosperm groups
The oldest fossil ascomycetes
TLDR
The oldest ascomycetous fungi with flask-shaped ascocarps in thin-section preparations of the Lower Devonian Rhynie chert of Aberdeenshire, Scotland are found, underscoring the diversity of fungal-plant interactions early in the colonization of the land.
Perithecial ascomycetes from the 400 million year old Rhynie chert: an example of ancestral polymorphism.
TLDR
The structure and morphology of the fossil fungus is compared with modern ascomycetes that produce perithecial ascocarps, and characters that define the fungus are considered in the context of ascomYcete phylogeny.
Sphenophytes from the Carnian (Upper Triassic) of Lunz am See (Lower Austria)
The sphenophytes in the Late Triassic flora of Lunz (Lower Austria) are revised and illustrated for the first time. Three taxa have been identified, i.e. Equisetites arenaceus, E. conicus and
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