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Four hundred-million-year-old vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae.
The discovery of arbuscules in Aglaophyton major, an Early Devonian land plant, provides unequivocal evidence that mycorrhizae were established >400 million years ago. Nonseptate hyphac andExpand
Evolution and Function of Leaf Venation Architecture: A Review
Abstract The leaves of extant terrestrial plants show highly diverse and elaborate patterns of leaf venation. One fundamental feature of many leaf venation patterns, especially in the case ofExpand
Stomata in early land plants: an anatomical and ecophysiological approach
direct comparisons of functions and functioning with extant forms and the conclusion that they are among Descriptions of Silurian and Lower Devonian stomata the most conservative of embryophyteExpand
The land plant δ13C record and plant evolution in the Late Palaeozoic
Abstract Based on the evaluation of 1323 carbon isotope values for Silurian to Permian terrestrial organic carbon, measured on plant fossils, cuticules, humic coals and bulk terrestrial organicExpand
Fossil arbuscular mycorrhizae from the Early Devonian
AbstractThe 400 million-year-old Rhynie chert has provided a wealth of information not only of early land plants, but also of the fungi that inhabited this paleoecosystem. In this paper we report t...
Fungal endophytes in a 400-million-yr-old land plant: infection pathways, spatial distribution, and host responses.
The Early Devonian Rhynie chert has been critical in documenting early land plant-fungal interactions. However, complex associations involving several fungi that enter into qualitatively differentExpand
The study of fossil gymnosperms by means of cuticular analysis
Cuticular analysis is a valuable method for the identification, classification and correlation of fossil gymnosperm remains. Brief characterizations of cuticles of the major gymnosperm groupsExpand
The oldest fossil ascomycetes
Ascomycetes are the largest group of true fungi, and characteristically produce their sexual spores in a sac-like structure called the ascus. They include medicinal agents (such as ergot), plantExpand
Perithecial ascomycetes from the 400 million year old Rhynie chert: an example of ancestral polymorphism.
We describe a perithecial, pleomorphic ascomycetous fungus from the Early Devonian (400 mya) Rhynie chert; the fungus occurs in the cortex just beneath the epidermis of aerial stems and rhizomes ofExpand
A harvestman (Arachnida: Opiliones) from the Early Devonian Rhynie cherts, Aberdeenshire, Scotland
ABSTRACT A harvestman (Arachnida: Opiliones) is described from the Early Devonian (Pragian) Rhynie cherts, Aberdeenshire, Scotland. Eophalangium sheari gen. et sp. nov. is the oldest knownExpand