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Differential roles of MDA5 and RIG-I helicases in the recognition of RNA viruses
TLDR
It is found that RIG-I is essential for the production of interferons in response to RNA viruses including paramyxoviruses, influenza virus and Japanese encephalitis virus, whereas MDA5 is critical for picornavirus detection. Expand
IPS-1, an adaptor triggering RIG-I- and Mda5-mediated type I interferon induction
TLDR
IPS-1 contained an N-terminal CARD-like structure that mediated interaction with the CARD of RIG-I and Mda5, which are cytoplasmic RNA helicases that sense viral infection and blocked interferon induction by virus infection. Expand
5'-Triphosphate RNA Is the Ligand for RIG-I
TLDR
It is demonstrated that the 5′-triphosphate end of RNA generated by viral polymerases is responsible for retinoic acid–inducible protein I (RIG-I)–mediated detection of RNA molecules in viruses known to be detected by MDA-5 such as the picornaviruses. Expand
Cell type-specific involvement of RIG-I in antiviral response.
TLDR
It is shown by gene targeting that RIG-I is essential for induction of type I interferons (IFNs) after infection with RNA viruses in fibroblasts and conventional dendritic cells (DCs) and exert antiviral responses in a cell type-specific manner. Expand
Length-dependent recognition of double-stranded ribonucleic acids by retinoic acid–inducible gene-I and melanoma differentiation–associated gene 5
TLDR
It is shown that the length of dsRNA is important for differential recognition by RIG-I and MDA5, and the Mda5 ligand, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid, was converted to a Rig-I ligand after shortening of the ds RNA length. Expand
A Toll-like receptor–independent antiviral response induced by double-stranded B-form DNA
TLDR
It is shown that intracellular administration of double-stranded B-form DNA triggered antiviral responses including production of type I interferons and chemokines independently of Toll-like receptors or the helicase RIG-I. Expand
Zc3h12a is an RNase essential for controlling immune responses by regulating mRNA decay
TLDR
Overexpression of Zc3h12a accelerated Il6 mRNA degradation via its 3′-untranslated region (UTR), and destabilized RNAs with3′-UTRs for genes including Il6, Il12p40 and the calcitonin receptor gene Calcr indicate that Zc 3h 12a is an essential RNase that prevents immune disorders by directly controlling the stability of a set of inflammatory genes. Expand
Recognition of 5' triphosphate by RIG-I helicase requires short blunt double-stranded RNA as contained in panhandle of negative-strand virus.
TLDR
A chemical approach for 5' triphosphate oligoribonucleotide synthesis is established and it is found that synthetic single-stranded 5'Triphosphates were unable to bind and activate RIG-I, and the addition of the synthetic complementary strand resulted in optimal binding and activation of Rig-I. Expand
Sequential control of Toll-like receptor–dependent responses by IRAK1 and IRAK2
TLDR
It is shown that IRAK2 was essential for sustaining TLR-induced expression of genes encoding cytokines and activation of the transcription factor NF-κB, despite the fact that IRAk2 was dispensable foractivation of the initial signaling cascades. Expand
Detection of pathogenic intestinal bacteria by Toll-like receptor 5 on intestinal CD11c+ lamina propria cells
TLDR
It is suggested that CD11c+ LPCs, via TLR5, detect and are used by pathogenic bacteria in the intestinal lumen, as suggested in Tlr5−/− mice. Expand
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