The report introduces a constructive learning algorithm for recurrent neural networks, which modifies only the weights to output units in order to achieve the learning task. key words: recurrent… Expand

We present a method for learning nonlinear systems, echo state networks (ESNs). ESNs employ artificial recurrent neural networks in a way that has recently been proposed independently as a learning… Expand

This review systematically surveys both current ways of generating/adapting the reservoirs and training different types of readouts, and offers a natural conceptual classification of the techniques, which transcends boundaries of the current ''brand-names'' of reservoir methods.Expand

This tutorial is a worked-out version of a 5-hour course originally held at AIS in September/October 2002, and contains a mathematically-oriented crash course on traditional training methods for recurrent neural networks, covering back-propagation through time, real-time recurrent learning (RTRL), and extended Kalman filtering approaches (EKF).Expand

An online adaptation scheme based on the RLS algorithm known from adaptive linear systems is described, as an example, a 10-th order NARMA system is adaptively identified.Expand

Stability conditions are presented, a stochastic gradient descent method is introduced and a usefulness of leaky-integrator ESNs are demonstrated for learning very slow dynamic systems and replaying the learnt system at different speeds.Expand

A novel, simple characterization of linearly dependent processes, called observable operator models, is provided, which leads to a constructive learning algorithm for the identification of linially dependent processes.Expand

A mechanism of neurodynamical organization, called conceptors, is proposed, which unites nonlinear dynamics with basic principles of conceptual abstraction and logic, and helps explain how conceptual-level information processing emerges naturally and robustly in neural systems.Expand

Analytical examples are used to show that a widely used criterion for the ESP, the spectral radius of the weight matrix being smaller than unity, is not sufficient to satisfy the echo state property.Expand