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Toxicokinetics of the nerve agent (+/-)-VX in anesthetized and atropinized hairless guinea pigs and marmosets after intravenous and percutaneous administration.
TLDR
It appears that (+/-)-VX is substantially more persistent in vivo than the two G-agents, which may undermine the efficacy of pretreatment with carbamates of percutaneous intoxication in particular due to gradual replacement of carbamate on AChE by (+/--VX, whereas classical treatment of intoxication with oximes is hampered by the short persistence of oximes relative to the agent. Expand
Intravenous and inhalation toxicokinetics of sarin stereoisomers in atropinized guinea pigs.
TLDR
The toxicokinetics of the stereoisomers of this nerve agent were studied in anesthetized, atropinized, and restrained guinea pigs after intravenous bolus administration and after nose-only exposure to vapor concentrations yielding 0.4 and 0.8 LCt50 of (+/-)-sarin. Expand
Therapeutic efficacy of HI-6 in soman-poisoned marmoset monkeys.
TLDR
HI-6 is an effective treatment against soman poisoning in marmosets and AChE reactivation or protection by HI-6 contributed to the survival of the animals. Expand
Organophosphate poisoning: a method to test therapeutic effects of oximes other than acetylcholinesterase reactivation in the rat.
A method was developed to study exclusively those therapeutic effects of oximes that are not related to reactivation of organophosphate-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The model uses theExpand
Inhalation toxicokinetics of soman stereoisomers in the atropinized guinea pig with nose-only exposure to soman vapor.
TLDR
The terminal half-life observed after nose-only exposure is longer than that observed after an equitoxic iv bolus administration, which suggests the presence of a depot in the upper respiratory tract from which absorption continues after termination of the exposure. Expand
Low level nose-only exposure to the nerve agent soman: toxicokinetics of soman stereoisomers and cholinesterase inhibition in atropinized guinea pigs.
TLDR
The gradual inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in erythrocytes during the exposure appeared to be in satisfactory accordance with the observed levels of the C(+/-)P(-)-soman stereoisomers in blood, suggesting that neuropsychological disorders are unlikely to develop in this exposure scenario. Expand
Soman levels in kidney and urine following administration to rat, guinea pig, and marmoset.
TLDR
It is concluded, that this reabsorption does probably not explain the previously observed persistence and "late toxicity" of C(+/-)P (+/-)-soman in rats, although the amount of renally excreted C( +/-)Soman (ca. 1% of the administered dose) should be sufficient for a toxicologically significant effect. Expand
The efficacy of some bis-pyridinium oximes as antidotes to soman in isolated muscles of several species including man.
TLDR
The results of these experiments indicate that the oximes tested, mostly HI-6, were quite effective as soman antidotes in muscle preparations of rats, guinea-pigs and dogs, while in the human preparation while these oximes werequite effective after sarin intoxication they were essentially without effect against soman. Expand
Analysis of oxime-induced neuromuscular recovery in guinea pig, rat and man following soman poisoning in vitro.
TLDR
It was found that the oxime-mediated recovery of function in both tissues of the rat and guinea pig was composed of direct oxime actions, AChE reactivation and adaptation, and in the human intercostal muscle, however, only adaptation was observed. Expand
Toxicokinetics of the four stereoisomers of the nerve agent soman in atropinized rats--influence of a soman simulator.
TLDR
Both this reintoxication phenomenon due to the presence of toxicologically significant C(+/-)P(-)-soman levels up to 4 hr after intoxication and its antagonism via PDP pretreatment can be understood on the basis of the toxicokinetic measurements. Expand
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