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Genetic variations of Toll-like receptor 9 predispose to systemic lupus erythematosus in Japanese population
TLDR
The results indicate that the presence of the G allele at position +1174 of TLR9 predisposes humans to an increased risk of SLE, and it is speculated thatTLR9 normally prevents the development of human SLE.
Escape of malaria parasites from host immunity requires CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells
Infection with malaria parasites frequently induces total immune suppression, which makes it difficult for the host to maintain long-lasting immunity. Here we show that depletion of CD4+CD25+
Pathological role of Toll-like receptor signaling in cerebral malaria.
TLDR
It is shown that myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88)-dependent TLR signaling mediates brain pathogenesis of severe malaria infection, namely cerebral malaria (CM), and that TLR2 and TLR9, but not TLR4, 5 and 7, were involved in CM.
Blocking of transmission to mosquitoes by antibody to Plasmodium vivax malaria vaccine candidates Pvs25 and Pvs28 despite antigenic polymorphism in field isolates.
TLDR
Data from this study clearly demonstrates that antibodies raised against Sal I-based vaccines overcome the genetic polymorphism of Pvs25 and Pvs28 present in natural isolates of P. vivax, suggesting the wide range applicability of Sal I based vaccines.
A possible origin population of pathogenic intestinal nematodes, Strongyloides stercoralis, unveiled by molecular phylogeny
TLDR
While type A parasites were isolated both from humans and dogs in different countries, type B parasites were found exclusively in dogs, indicating that the type B has not adapted to infect humans, and may be an origin population from which human-infecting strains are derived.
IL-18 gene therapy develops Th1-type immune responses in Leishmania major-infected BALB/c mice: is the effect mediated by the CpG signaling TLR9?
TLDR
IL-18 gene therapy was shown to develop Th1-type protective immunity in L. major-infected BALB/c mice without the requirement of exogenous IL-12, probably via CpG-TLR9 signaling pathway.
Antibodies to Malaria Vaccine Candidates Pvs25 and Pvs28 Completely Block the Ability of Plasmodium vivax To Infect Mosquitoes
TLDR
Pvs25 and Pvs28, expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are as yet the only fully characterized transmission-blocking vaccine candidates against P. vivax that induce such a potent antiparasite response.
Switch of CD4+ T cell differentiation from Th2 to Th1 by treatment with cathepsin B inhibitor in experimental leishmaniasis.
TLDR
It is indicated that cathepsin B inhibitor could switch CD4+ T cell differentiation from Th2 to Th1, suggesting that the alteration in Ag processing modulates the polarity of Th differentiation.
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