A Toll-like receptor recognizes bacterial DNA
It is shown that cellular response to CpG DNA is mediated by a Toll-like receptor, TLR9, and vertebrate immune systems appear to have evolved a specific Toll- like receptor that distinguishes bacterial DNA from self-DNA.
Innate Antiviral Responses by Means of TLR7-Mediated Recognition of Single-Stranded RNA
These results identify ssRNA as a ligand for TLR7 and suggest that cells of the innate immune system sense endosomal ssRNA to detect infection by RNA viruses.
Role of Adaptor TRIF in the MyD88-Independent Toll-Like Receptor Signaling Pathway
It is shown that TRIF is essential for TLR3- and TLR4-mediated signaling pathways facilitating mammalian antiviral host defense and complete loss of nuclear factor kappa B activation in response toTLR4 stimulation is demonstrated.
Species-Specific Recognition of Single-Stranded RNA via Toll-like Receptor 7 and 8
It is shown that guanosine (G)- and uridine (U)-rich ssRNA oligonucleotides derived from human immunodeficiency virus–1 (HIV-1) stimulate dendritic cells and macrophages to secrete interferon-α and proinflammatory, as well as regulatory, cytokines, and these data suggest that ssRNA represents a physiological ligand for TLR7 and TLR8.
Small anti-viral compounds activate immune cells via the TLR7 MyD88–dependent signaling pathway
It is shown that the imidazoquinolines activate immune cells via the Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7)-MyD88–dependent signaling pathway, and that neither MyD88- nor TLR7-deficient mice showed any inflammatory cytokine production by macrophages, proliferation of splenocytes or maturation of dendritic cells.
TRAM is specifically involved in the Toll-like receptor 4–mediated MyD88-independent signaling pathway
TRAM provides specificity for the MyD88-independent component of TLR4 signaling, and is identified as a fourth TIR domain–containing adaptor, TRIF-related adaptor molecule (TRAM), and analyzed its physiological function by gene targeting.
Essential role for TIRAP in activation of the signalling cascade shared by TLR2 and TLR4
The results show that TIRAP has a crucial role in the MyD88-dependent signalling pathway shared by TLR2 and TLR4, and is not specific to TLR3, TLR7 or TLR9 signalling, which is in contrast to previous suggestions.
Interferon-α induction through Toll-like receptors involves a direct interaction of IRF7 with MyD88 and TRAF6
It is shown that TLR-mediated IFN-α induction requires the formation of a complex consisting of MyD88, TRAF6 and IRF7 as well as TRAF 6-dependent ubiquitination.
A Toll-like receptor–independent antiviral response induced by double-stranded B-form DNA
It is shown that intracellular administration of double-stranded B-form DNA triggered antiviral responses including production of type I interferons and chemokines independently of Toll-like receptors or the helicase RIG-I.