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A Toll-like receptor recognizes bacterial DNA
TLDR
It is shown that cellular response to CpG DNA is mediated by a Toll-like receptor, TLR9, and vertebrate immune systems appear to have evolved a specific Toll- like receptor that distinguishes bacterial DNA from self-DNA. Expand
Innate Antiviral Responses by Means of TLR7-Mediated Recognition of Single-Stranded RNA
TLDR
These results identify ssRNA as a ligand for TLR7 and suggest that cells of the innate immune system sense endosomal ssRNA to detect infection by RNA viruses. Expand
Species-Specific Recognition of Single-Stranded RNA via Toll-like Receptor 7 and 8
TLDR
It is shown that guanosine (G)- and uridine (U)-rich ssRNA oligonucleotides derived from human immunodeficiency virus–1 (HIV-1) stimulate dendritic cells and macrophages to secrete interferon-α and proinflammatory, as well as regulatory, cytokines, and these data suggest that ssRNA represents a physiological ligand for TLR7 and TLR8. Expand
Role of Adaptor TRIF in the MyD88-Independent Toll-Like Receptor Signaling Pathway
TLDR
It is shown that TRIF is essential for TLR3- and TLR4-mediated signaling pathways facilitating mammalian antiviral host defense and complete loss of nuclear factor kappa B activation in response toTLR4 stimulation is demonstrated. Expand
Small anti-viral compounds activate immune cells via the TLR7 MyD88–dependent signaling pathway
TLDR
It is shown that the imidazoquinolines activate immune cells via the Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7)-MyD88–dependent signaling pathway, and that neither MyD88- nor TLR7-deficient mice showed any inflammatory cytokine production by macrophages, proliferation of splenocytes or maturation of dendritic cells. Expand
TRAM is specifically involved in the Toll-like receptor 4–mediated MyD88-independent signaling pathway
TLDR
TRAM provides specificity for the MyD88-independent component of TLR4 signaling, and is identified as a fourth TIR domain–containing adaptor, TRIF-related adaptor molecule (TRAM), and analyzed its physiological function by gene targeting. Expand
Interferon-α induction through Toll-like receptors involves a direct interaction of IRF7 with MyD88 and TRAF6
TLDR
It is shown that TLR-mediated IFN-α induction requires the formation of a complex consisting of MyD88, TRAF6 and IRF7 as well as TRAF 6-dependent ubiquitination. Expand
Essential role for TIRAP in activation of the signalling cascade shared by TLR2 and TLR4
TLDR
The results show that TIRAP has a crucial role in the MyD88-dependent signalling pathway shared by TLR2 and TLR4, and is not specific to TLR3, TLR7 or TLR9 signalling, which is in contrast to previous suggestions. Expand
Toll‐like receptor expression in murine DC subsets: lack of TLR7 expression by CD8α+ DC correlates with unresponsiveness to imidazoquinolines
TLDR
It is reported that mRNA for most TLR is expressed at similar levels by murine splenic DC sub‐types, including PDC, but that TLR3 is preferentially expressed by CD8α+ DC while TLR5 and TLR7 are selectively absent from the same subset, suggesting that the dichotomy in TLR expression between plasmacytoid and non‐plasmacy toid DC is not conserved between species. Expand
Recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns by TLR family.
TLDR
Results indicate that TLR3, TLR7 and TLR9 may play an important role in detecting and combating viral infections. Expand
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