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Identification and characterization of metabolically benign obesity in humans.
A metabolically benign obesity that is not accompanied by insulin resistance and early atherosclerosis exists in humans and ectopic fat in the liver may be more important than visceralfat in the determination of such a beneficial phenotype in obesity.
Identification of Serum Metabolites Associated With Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Using a Targeted Metabolomic Approach
The data indicate that metabolic alterations, including sugar metabolites, amino acids, and choline-containing phospholipids, are associated early on with a higher risk of T2D.
Causes and metabolic consequences of Fatty liver.
The mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of hepatic fat accumulation, particularly the roles of body fat distribution, nutrition, exercise, genetics, and gene-environment interaction are discussed.
Alpha2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein/fetuin-A is associated with insulin resistance and fat accumulation in the liver in humans.
It is found that high AHSG plasma levels are associated with insulin resistance in humans and are elevated in subjects with fat accumulation in the liver, consistent with a potential role of A HSG as a link between fatty liver and insulin resistance.
Metabolically healthy obesity: epidemiology, mechanisms, and clinical implications.
Cancer progression and tumor cell motility are associated with the FGFR4 Arg(388) allele.
The results support the conclusion that the FGFR4 Arg(388) allele represents a determinant that is innocuous in healthy individuals but predisposes cancer patients for significantly accelerated disease progression.
Diabetes-associated sustained activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB.
Data demonstrate that ligands of RAGE can induce sustained activation of NF-kappaB as a result of increased levels of de novo synthesized NF-KappaBp65 overriding endogenous negative feedback mechanisms and thus might contribute to the persistent NF- kappaB activation observed in hyperglycemia and possibly other chronic diseases.
Plasma adiponectin concentrations predict insulin sensitivity of both glucose and lipid metabolism.
In nondiabetic individuals, high adiponectin predicts increased insulin sensitivity, independent of low body fat mass and affects not only insulin-stimulated glucose disposal but also lipoprotein metabolism and insulin-mediated suppression of postprandial FFA release.
Pathophysiology and pharmacological treatment of insulin resistance.
This review focuses on the pathophysiology and molecular pathogenesis of insulin resistance and on the capability of antihyperglycemic pharmacological agents to treat insulin resistance, i.e., a-glucosidase inhibitors, biguanides, thiazolidinediones, sulfonylureas, and insulin.