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A 4-item measure of depression and anxiety: validation and standardization of the Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4) in the general population.
BACKGROUND The 4-item Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4) is an ultra-brief self-report questionnaire that consists of a 2-item depression scale (PHQ-2) and a 2-item anxiety scale (GAD-2). GivenExpand
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Prevalence of complicated grief in a representative population-based sample.
BACKGROUND Complicated grief (CG) has been proposed as a distinct diagnostic category in the next edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V). However, fewExpand
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Updates on the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder: A population-based survey
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterised by a preoccupation with perceived defects in one's appearance, which leads to significant distress and/or impairment. Although several studies haveExpand
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Psychometric properties and population-based norms of the Life Orientation Test Revised (LOT-R).
OBJECTIVES The relevance of the construct optimism in health psychology has been convincingly demonstrated in numerous studies. Population-based studies about dispositional optimism and theExpand
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Separating optimism and pessimism: a robust psychometric analysis of the revised Life Orientation Test (LOT-R).
The internal structure of the revised Life Orientation Test (LOT-R, German version; M. F. Scheier, C. S. Carver, & M. W. Bridges, 1994) was analyzed in a sample of 46,133 participants who ranged inExpand
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The German version of the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS): Psychometric properties, validity, and population-based norms.
The Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) is the most commonly used measure for life satisfaction. Although there are numerous studies confirming factorial validity, most studies on dimensionality areExpand
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The epidemiology of the proposed DSM-5 hoarding disorder: exploration of the acquisition specifier, associated features, and distress.
OBJECTIVE Compulsive hoarding, characterized by the acquisition of and failure to discard a large number of possessions, is increasingly recognized as a significant public health burden. Many facetsExpand
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Accuracy of anthropometric indicators of obesity to predict cardiovascular risk.
CONTEXT Obesity is associated with various cardiovascular risk factors. The body mass index (BMI) is the standard measure of overweight and obesity. However, more recently, waist to hip ratio (WHR)Expand
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Psychometric analysis of the brief symptom inventory 18 (BSI-18) in a representative German sample
BackgroundThe BSI-18 contains the three six-item scales somatization, depression, and anxiety as well as the Global Severity Index (GSI), including all 18 items. The BSI-18 is the latest and shortestExpand
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Lifetime Traumatic Experiences and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in the German Population: Results of a Representative Population Survey
Abstract Only a few European population-based studies on the epidemiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are available to date. This study aims to broaden the epidemiological knowledge ofExpand
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