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The cannabinoid system and immune modulation
Studies on the effects of marijuana smoking have evolved into the discovery and description of the endocannabinoid system. To date, this system is composed of two receptors, CB1 and CB2, andExpand
Theiler's Virus Infection: a Model for Multiple Sclerosis
SUMMARY Both genetic background and environmental factors, very probably viruses, appear to play a role in the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). Lessons from viral experimental models suggest thatExpand
Spatial Learning Impairment in Mice Infected with Legionella pneumophila or Administered Exogenous Interleukin-1-β
The effect of interleukin-1 beta (IL 1 beta) on spatial learning was examined. In one experiment, C57BL/6 mice were given daily injections (100 ng/mouse) of recombinant murine IL1 beta prior toExpand
Involvement of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Suppression of Antimicrobial Activity and Cytokine Responses of Alveolar Macrophages to Legionella pneumophila Infection by Nicotine1
Although nicotine is thought to be one of the major immunomodulatory components of cigarette smoking, how nicotine alters the host defense of the lung and, in particular, immune responses of alveolarExpand
Microbial Infections, Immunomodulation, and Drugs of Abuse
SUMMARY The use of recreational drugs of abuse has generated serious health concerns. There is a long-recognized relationship between addictive drugs and increased levels of infections. Studies ofExpand
The cannabinoid system and cytokine network.
Many advances have been made in the last few years concerning our understanding of the receptors and ligands composing the cannabinoid system. Likewise, the science surrounding cytokine biology hasExpand
Secondary immunity to Legionella pneumophila and Th1 activity are suppressed by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol injection.
Resistance to infection with Legionella pneumophila is primarily dependent upon cell-mediated immunity rather than humoral immunity. Recent evidence suggests that activation of cell-mediated immunityExpand
Induction of a Potential Paracrine Angiogenic Loop between Human THP-1 Macrophages and Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells during Bartonella henselae Infection
ABSTRACT Bartonella henselae is responsible for various disease syndromes that loosely correlate with the immune status of the host. In the immunocompromised individual, B. henselae-inducedExpand
Cannabinoid receptors and immunity.
Abstract Marijuana cannabinoids are both psychoactive and immunoactive. Here, we will review evidence that cannabinoids modulate immunity and that cannabinoid receptors and endogenous ligands areExpand
Bacterial heat shock proteins directly induce cytokine mRNA and interleukin-1 secretion in macrophage cultures.
Bacterial heat shock proteins (hsp) have been shown to be important immunogens stimulating both T cells and B cells. However, little is known concerning the direct interactions between hsp andExpand