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Distribution and Functional Characterization of Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter-4, a Novel Cardiac Adenosine Transporter Activated at Acidic pH
Adenosine plays multiple roles in the efficient functioning of the heart by regulating coronary blood flow, cardiac pacemaking, and contractility. Previous studies have implicated the equilibrativeExpand
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Molecular Architecture of the Human Sinus Node: Insights Into the Function of the Cardiac Pacemaker
Background— Although we know much about the molecular makeup of the sinus node (SN) in small mammals, little is known about it in humans. The aims of the present study were to investigate theExpand
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New insights into pacemaker activity: promoting understanding of sick sinus syndrome.
Sick sinus syndrome is an abnormality involving the generation of the action potential by the sinus node and is characterized by an atrial rate inappropriate for physiological requirements.Expand
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Requirement of neuronal‐ and cardiac‐type sodium channels for murine sinoatrial node pacemaking
The majority of Na+ channels in the heart are composed of the tetrodotoxin (TTX)‐resistant (KD, 2–6 μm) Nav1.5 isoform; however, recently it has been shown that TTX‐sensitive (KD, 1–10 nm) neuronalExpand
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The Anatomy and Physiology of the Sinoatrial Node—A Contemporary Review
The sinoatrial node is the primary pacemaker of the heart. Nodal dysfunction with aging, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and even endurance athletic training can lead to a wide variety ofExpand
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Organisation of the mouse sinoatrial node: structure and expression of HCN channels.
OBJECTIVE To reveal the structural characteristics of the sinoatrial node (SAN) and the distribution of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channels (HCN) in the SAN in theExpand
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Postganglionic nerve stimulation induces temporal inhibition of excitability in rabbit sinoatrial node.
Vagal stimulation results in complex changes of pacemaker excitability in the sinoatrial node (SAN). To investigate the vagal effects in the rabbit SAN, we used optical mapping, which is the onlyExpand
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An unexpected requirement for brain-type sodium channels for control of heart rate in the mouse sinoatrial node
Voltage-gated Na+ channels are composed of pore-forming α and auxiliary β subunits. The majority of Na+ channels in the heart contain tetrodotoxin (TTX)-insensitive Nav1.5 α subunits, butExpand
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Computer Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of the Sinoatrial Node
Background—There is an effort to build an anatomically and biophysically detailed virtual heart, and, although there are models for the atria and ventricles, there is no model for the sinoatrial nodeExpand
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