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In addition to the well-documented mood-stabilizing effects of lithium in manic-depressive illness patients, recent in vitro and in vivo studies in rodents and humans have increasingly implicated that lithium can be used in the treatment of acute brain injuries (e.g., ischemia) and chronic neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's(More)
Sepsis is a major clinical challenge and septic encephalopathy is its nasty complication. The pathogenesis and underlying mechanisms of septic encephalopathy are not well understood. This study sought to fully characterize sepsis-associated biochemical and histopathological changes in brains of mice after cecal ligation and puncture, regarded as a highly(More)
The effects of psychological stress on serotonin (5-HT) release were studied in the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus and the prefrontal cortex in conscious rats with in vivo microdialysis. Psychological stress, wherein emotional factors were predominantly involved, significantly increased extracellular 5-HT levels in these two areas. These findings suggest(More)
Infusion of muscimol (5 X 10[-5] M, 60 min) into the nucleus accumbens (NAC) through a dialysis membrane caused a significant increase in extracellular dopamine (DA) and its metabolite, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC). Fos-like immunoreactivity induced by intra-NAC infusion of muscimol was seen ipsilaterally in many accumbofugal target areas, but no(More)
The effect of dopamine (DA) uptake inhibitors (methamphetamine, nomifensine, and phenylethylamine) on the release of endogenous DA from striatal slices of rats pretreated with methamphetamine (6 mg/kg/day for 9 days) was investigated. The exposure of methamphetamine-pretreated rat striatal slices to a low concentration (10(-7) M, 5 X 10(-7) M) of(More)
The effects of psychological stress on catecholamine and indoleamine metabolism were examined in various brain regions of rats. Psychologically stressed rats were exposed to emotional responses of foot-shocked rats, but were themselves prevented from receiving foot-shock. Psychological stress for 30 min resulted in significant increases of both(More)
The effects of apomorphine or sulpiride on electrically evoked dopamine release from striatal slices of rats pretreated with haloperidol were investigated. Chronic haloperidol treatment (1 mg/kg per day for 21 days) significantly reduced electrically evoked dopamine release from striatal slices until 72 h after the last injection. The apomorphine-induced(More)
Inescapable footshock stress produced marked increases in noradrenaline (NA) release, which was assessed by intracranial microdialysis, in the hypothalamus of conscious rats. Emotional stress, without physical stimuli (replacement to the environment where the rats had received footshock previously), also increased hypothalamic NA release. These results(More)
We examined the effects of riluzole, a neuroprotective drug, on voltage-dependent Na channels, nicotinic receptors, and voltage-dependent Ca channels, as well as catecholamine secretion, in comparison with those of verapamil and nicardipine, in primary cultures of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Riluzole inhibited veratridine-induced 22Na influx via(More)
In cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells treated with nicotine (10 microm for 24 h), phosphorylation of Akt, glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 induced by insulin (100 nm for 10 min) was enhanced by approximately 62%, without altering levels of these protein kinases. Nicotine produced time (> 12(More)