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The human genome holds an extraordinary trove of information about human development, physiology, medicine and evolution. Here we report the results of an international collaboration to produce and make freely available a draft sequence of the human genome. We also present an initial analysis of the data, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned(More)
Endotoxin, a constituent of Gram-negative bacteria, stimulates macrophages to release large quantities of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-1 (IL-1), which can precipitate tissue injury and lethal shock (endotoxemia). Antagonists of TNF and IL-1 have shown limited efficacy in clinical trials, possibly because these cytokines are early mediators in(More)
Vertebrates achieve internal homeostasis during infection or injury by balancing the activities of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory pathways. Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide), produced by all gram-negative bacteria, activates macrophages to release cytokines that are potentially lethal. The central nervous system regulates systemic inflammatory responses(More)
Unlike signature or misuse based intrusion detection techniques, anomaly detection is capable of detecting novel attacks. However, the use of anomaly detection in practice is hampered by a high rate of false alarms. Specification-based techniques have been shown to produce a low rate of false alarms, but are not as effective as anomaly detection in(More)
Voltammetric microelectrodes and microdialysis probes were used simultaneously to monitor extracellular dopamine in rat striatum during electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle. Microelectrodes were placed far away (1 mm) from, immediately adjacent to, and at the outlet of microdialysis probes. In drug-naive rats, electrical stimulation (45 Hz,(More)
Axon guidance molecules, critical for neurodevelopment, are also implicated in morphological and other neurodaptative changes mediated by physiological or pharmacological events in adult brain. As an example, the psychostimulant cocaine markedly alters axon guidance molecules in adult brain of cocaine-treated rats. To decipher a potential link between(More)
SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein) complex, a four-helical bundle composed of syntaxin1 and synaptosome-associated protein 25 (SNAP25) on the plasma membrane and synaptobrevin/VAMP2 (vesicle-associated membrane protein 2) on the vesicle membrane, plays a key role in synaptic exocytosis and facilitates neurotransmission.(More)
Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) have been reported to migrate long distances and to bridge lesion sites, guiding axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI). To understand mechanisms of OEC migration and axonal guidance, we injected lamina propria OECs 1 mm rostral and caudal to C4 SCI sites. One month later, OECs formed an apparent migrating cell(More)
The Smad family of proteins, which are frequently targeted by tumorigenic mutations in cancer, mediate TGF-beta signaling from cell membrane to nucleus. The crystal structure of a Smad3 MH1 domain bound to an optimal DNA sequence determined at 2.8 A resolution reveals a novel DNA-binding motif. In the crystals, base-specific DNA recognition is provided(More)