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Through-silicon via (TSV) has been used for 3-dimentional integrated circuits. Mechanical stresses in Cu and Si around the TSV were measured using synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction. The hydrostatic stress in Cu TSV went from high tensile of 234 MPa in the as-fabricated state, to À196 MPa (compressive) during thermal annealing (in situ measurement), to 167(More)
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