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Through-silicon via (TSV) has been used for 3-dimentional integrated circuits. Mechanical stresses in Cu and Si around the TSV were measured using synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction. The hydrostatic stress in Cu TSV went from high tensile of 234 MPa in the as-fabricated state, to À196 MPa (compressive) during thermal annealing (in situ measurement), to 167(More)
Because the rate of bone loss is an important risk factor for fracture, we studied longitudinal changes in bone mineral density (BMD). Although the BMD of the hip decreased over time, spine BMD remained largely stable or increased. Therefore, spine BMD may not be appropriate for assessing BMD change. The rate of age-dependent bone loss has been shown to be(More)
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