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Glutamatergic synaptic transmission is a dynamic process determined by the amount of glutamate released by presynaptic sites, the clearance of glutamate in the synaptic cleft, and the properties of postsynaptic glutamate receptors. Clearance of glutamate in the synaptic cleft depends on passive diffusion and active uptake by glutamate transporters. In this(More)
Bidirectional interactions between neurons and glial cells are crucial to the genesis of pathological pain. The mechanisms regulating these interactions and the role of this process in relaying synaptic input in the spinal dorsal horn remain to be established. We studied the role of glutamate transporters in the regulation of such interactions. On(More)
Chinese adults literate only in Chinese characters could not add or delete individual consonants in spoken Chinese words. A comparable group of adults, literate in alphabetic spelling as well as characters, could perform the same tasks readily and accurately. The two groups were similar in education and experience but differed in age and consequently in(More)
Glial cell dysfunction and excessive glutamate receptor activation in spinal dorsal horn neurons are hallmark mechanisms of pathological pain. The way in which glial cell dysfunction leads to excessive glutamate receptor activation in the spinal sensory synapses remains unknown. We and others recently reported the downregulation of glial glutamate(More)
β-Asarone is an active component of the Acori graminei rhizome that is a traditional Chinese medicine clinically used in treating dementia in China. However, the cognitive effect of β-asarone and its mechanism has remained elusive. Here, we used asenescence-accelerated prone 8 (SAMP8) mice, which mimic many of the salient features of Alzheimer׳s disease(More)
Activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the spinal dorsal horn neurons is a key process related to sensory transmission, neural plasticity, and pathogenesis of pain. In this study, we investigated how activation of NMDA receptors in spinal substantia gelatinosa neurons is regulated by glutamate re-uptake through glutamate transporters located(More)
Neuronal fractalkine acts via its receptor, CX3CR1, on microglia to regulate neuroinflammation. Conflicting results have been reported in studies employing CX3CR1 deficient (Cx3cr1(-/-)) mice. Here, compared to wild-type, endotoxin-treated neuron-glial Cx3cr1(-/-)cultures produced less TNF-α, nitric oxide and superoxide; however, fractalkine treatment(More)
BACKGROUND Sevoflurane preconditioning has a neuroprotective effect, but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate whether sevoflurane-induced cerebral preconditioning involves inhibition of carboxy-terminal modulator protein (CTMP), an endogenous inhibitor of Akt, in a rat model of focal cerebral(More)
During viral infection, extracellular dsRNA is a potent signaling molecule that activates many innate immune cells, including macrophages. TLR3 is a well-known receptor for extracellular dsRNA, and internalization of extracellular dsRNA is required for endosomal TLR3 activation. Preserved inflammatory responses of TLR3-deficient macrophages to extracellular(More)
Activation of glutamate receptors and glial cells in the spinal dorsal horn are two fundamental processes involved in the pathogenesis of various pain conditions, including neuropathic pain induced by injury to the peripheral or central nervous systems. Numerous studies have demonstrated that minocycline treatment attenuates allodynic and hyperalgesic(More)