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The human genome holds an extraordinary trove of information about human development, physiology, medicine and evolution. Here we report the results of an international collaboration to produce and make freely available a draft sequence of the human genome. We also present an initial analysis of the data, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned(More)
Endotoxin, a constituent of Gram-negative bacteria, stimulates macrophages to release large quantities of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-1 (IL-1), which can precipitate tissue injury and lethal shock (endotoxemia). Antagonists of TNF and IL-1 have shown limited efficacy in clinical trials, possibly because these cytokines are early mediators in(More)
Vertebrates achieve internal homeostasis during infection or injury by balancing the activities of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory pathways. Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide), produced by all gram-negative bacteria, activates macrophages to release cytokines that are potentially lethal. The central nervous system regulates systemic inflammatory responses(More)
Receptor proteins for photoreception have been studied for several decades. More recently, putative receptors for olfaction have been isolated and characterized. In contrast, no receptors for taste have been identified yet by molecular cloning. This report describes experiments aimed at identifying a receptor responsible for the taste of monosodium(More)
Voltammetric microelectrodes and microdialysis probes were used simultaneously to monitor extracellular dopamine in rat striatum during electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle. Microelectrodes were placed far away (1 mm) from, immediately adjacent to, and at the outlet of microdialysis probes. In drug-naive rats, electrical stimulation (45 Hz,(More)
SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein) complex, a four-helical bundle composed of syntaxin1 and synaptosome-associated protein 25 (SNAP25) on the plasma membrane and synaptobrevin/VAMP2 (vesicle-associated membrane protein 2) on the vesicle membrane, plays a key role in synaptic exocytosis and facilitates neurotransmission.(More)
Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) have been reported to migrate long distances and to bridge lesion sites, guiding axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI). To understand mechanisms of OEC migration and axonal guidance, we injected lamina propria OECs 1 mm rostral and caudal to C4 SCI sites. One month later, OECs formed an apparent migrating cell(More)
Spinal cord neuronal restricted progenitor (NRP) cells, when transplanted into the neonatal anterior forebrain subventricular zone, migrate to distinct regions throughout the forebrain including the olfactory bulb, frontal cortex, and occipital cortex but not to the hippocampus. Their migration pattern and differentiation potential is distinct from anterior(More)
The Smad family of proteins, which are frequently targeted by tumorigenic mutations in cancer, mediate TGF-beta signaling from cell membrane to nucleus. The crystal structure of a Smad3 MH1 domain bound to an optimal DNA sequence determined at 2.8 A resolution reveals a novel DNA-binding motif. In the crystals, base-specific DNA recognition is provided(More)