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Program visualisation focuses on the graphical representation of an executing program and its data. The information is presented in a form designed to enhance both the understanding and productivity of the programmer through the eecient use of the human visual system. The programmer is able to observe patterns of behaviour within the executing code and(More)
New drugs are needed for preventing drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The prophylactic efficacy of azithromycin against P. falciparum in malaria-immune Kenyans was 83%. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine the prophylactic efficacy of azithromycin against multidrug-resistant P. falciparum malaria and(More)
We reported recently that neonatal supplementation with 52 micromol vitamin A reduced infant mortality by 64%; acute side effects were limited to a 3% excess rate of a bulging fontanelle. The current study was conducted to identify developmental changes at 3 y of age associated with neonatal vitamin A supplementation or a bulging fontanelle. Children who(More)
There are limited data on the evolution of the leukocyte and platelet counts in malaria patients. In a clinical trial of chloroquine vs. chloroquine plus doxycycline vs. doxycycline alone against Plasmodium vivax (n = 64) or Plasmodium falciparum (n = 98) malaria, the total white cell (WCC) and platelet (PLT) counts were measured on Days 0, 3, 7 and 28 in(More)
BACKGROUND Mefloquine and doxycycline are the two drugs recommended for prophylaxis of malaria for visitors to areas where Plasmodium falciparum is resistant to chloroquine. OBJECTIVE To compare the efficacy and tolerability of mefloquine with those of doxycycline as prophylaxis for malaria. DESIGN Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled field(More)
Combination therapy is one method of overcoming the global challenge of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. We conducted a hospital-based 28-day in vivo test comparing chloroquine/doxycycline to chloroquine or doxycycline alone for treating P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria in Irian Jaya, Indonesia. Eighty-nine patients with uncomplicated(More)
Drug tolerability affects compliance. We evaluated the tolerability levels of azithromycin (750-mg loading dose plus 250 mg/day; n = 148 subjects), doxycycline (100 mg/day; n = 75), and placebo (n = 77) as prophylaxis against malaria in Indonesian adults over 20 weeks. Self-reported and elicited symptoms, health perception, hearing, hematology, and(More)
Immune suppression, a potential side effect of long-term chemoprophylaxis, was evaluated as part of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial that compared daily primaquine against weekly chloroquine for malaria prevention. In the last month of the year-long trial, baseline in vitro lymphoproliferative responses to tetanus toxoid were measured, and a(More)
Immune suppression resulting from prolonged chemoprophylaxis and potential drug-vaccine interaction were investigated within the context of a randomized placebo-controlled trial that compared daily primaquine or weekly chloroquine administration for malaria prevention. After 11 months of prophylaxis, adult male subjects received a tetanus-diphtheria (Td)(More)
Synthesized T-cell epitopes of tetanus toxin are universally immunogenic and serve to enhance immune response when they are used as vaccine carriers of B-cell epitopes. The immunogenicity of the P2, P30, and P2P30 T-cell epitopes of tetanus toxin and whole tetanus toxoid (TT) was evaluated by in vitro proliferation assay of lymphocytes from men with no(More)