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To permit rapid optical control of brain activity, we have engineered multiple lines of transgenic mice that express the light-activated cation channel Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in subsets of neurons. Illumination of ChR2-positive neurons in brain slices produced photocurrents that generated action potentials within milliseconds and with precisely timed(More)
The superior colliculus (SC) has a topographic map of visual space, but the spatial nature of its output command for orienting gaze shifts remains unclear. Here we show that the SC codes neither desired gaze displacement nor gaze direction in space (as debated previously), but rather, desired gaze direction in retinal coordinates. Electrical(More)
Endotoxin, a constituent of Gram-negative bacteria, stimulates macrophages to release large quantities of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-1 (IL-1), which can precipitate tissue injury and lethal shock (endotoxemia). Antagonists of TNF and IL-1 have shown limited efficacy in clinical trials, possibly because these cytokines are early mediators in(More)
In response to DNA damage, cells activate checkpoint pathways that prevent cell cycle progression. In fission yeast and mammals, mitotic arrest in response to DNA damage requires inhibitory Cdk phosphorylation regulated by Chk1. This study indicates that Chk1 is required for function of the DNA damage checkpoint in Saccharomyces cerevisiae but acts through(More)
math5 is a murine orthologue of atonal, a bHLH proneural gene essential for the formation of photoreceptors and chordotonal organs in Drosophila. The expression of math5 coincides with the onset of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) differentiation. Targeted deletion of math5 blocks the initial differentiation of 80% of RGCs and results in an increase in(More)
Many computational models of normal vernier acuity make predictions based on the just-noticeable contrast difference. Recently, Hu, Klein and Carney [(1993) Vision Research, 33, 1241-1258] compared vernier acuity and contrast discrimination (jnd) in normal foveal viewing using cosine gratings. In the jnd stimulus the test grating was added in-phase to the(More)
Vertebrates achieve internal homeostasis during infection or injury by balancing the activities of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory pathways. Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide), produced by all gram-negative bacteria, activates macrophages to release cytokines that are potentially lethal. The central nervous system regulates systemic inflammatory responses(More)
We have recently reported evidence that a very high affinity interaction between the beta-amyloid peptide Abeta(1-42) and the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (alpha7nAChR) may be a precipitating event in the formation of amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, the kinetics for the binding of Abeta(1-42) to alpha7nAChR and(More)
Fifteen percent to 35% of the United States population experiences tinnitus, a subjective "ringing in the ears". Up to 10% of those afflicted report severe and disabling symptoms. Tinnitus was induced in rats using unilateral, 1 h, 17 kHz-centered octave-band noise (116 dB SPL) and assessed using a gap-startle method. The dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) is(More)